the mooc idea
perhaps the *mooc (massive open online courses) idea,
large-scale interactive participation and open access
or the mooc potential anyway,
has less to do with massive amounts of learning/outcomes/expectations (or whatever the lastest claim might be),
and more to do with
*sussing out the hidden geniuses or the hidden passionistas.
[perhaps moocs could be like city as school – in the sense that they are seeking to widen the pool, open up the adjacent possible, enough, so that serendipitous synchronicity is 100%. every day. today. open community as open curriculum in order to get our optimal – and often not-obvious interconnetedness out. ness.]
p. 147: the diversity, of whatever kind, that is generated by cities rests on the fact that in cities so may people are so close together, and among them contain so many different tastes, skills, needs, supplies, and bees in their bonnets... there are enough people to support their presence at short, convenient intervals,… when distance inconvenience sets in, the small, the various and the personal wither away. ….a lively city scene is lively largely by virtue of its enormous collection of small elements. – Jane Jacobs
[ni – ness – what tech wants – and can now do for us..]
perhaps we have two problems:
1. our focus is on marketables (getting rich, earning a living, performing)
2. because of #1 we are missing remarkables (indispensable people)
what if the intent of a mooc – or any open connecting/gathering – is simply because you are doing something that matters (to you). people are simply drawn together – no agenda/cost/gate/commitment.
what if finishing isn’t the point.
what if the entry/exit to that mooc/community/connection is completely open/free, because it’s not about cashing in, or getting credentialed. what if it’s more about doing/being. what if we start betting more on each other, on trust, than on winning/competition/completion, on academia even. what if we call that public education.
the irony, perhaps, is that we may just find ourselves doing more that matters, having less problems to solve, being happier/healthier, indeed – having all we need.
could it be that Shirky‘s cognitive surplus mindset – could set us all free? free from the mentality of money. free from the mentality of a market place. imagine the change if we just started looking at people – instead of competing for some prize, or focusing on some outcome. perhaps we tap into art (the thing you can’t not do) and protect it/us from the market mentality (like the parents at the daycare centers fell into).
These arguments miss the point of the MOOC, and that point is, precisely, to make education available to people who cannot afford pay the cost to travel to and attend these small in-person events. Having one instructor for 20-50 people is expensive, and most of the world cannot afford that cost.
MOOCs were not designed to serve the missions of the elite colleges and universities. They were designed to undermine them, and make those missions obsolete.
on college board keeping us in the marketing mode:
The College Board was founded in 1900, supposedly to expand access to college and simplify the admission process…. While its initial purpose may or may not have been salutary, its current impact is corrosive. via Steve Nelson
ACT/SAT/AP – not to mention money – have become roadblocks to living lives that matter. and not just because the tests are hard/easy – it’s because they’ve monopolized themselves into insignificance. [the article linked to Steve’s name nails this]
there’s got to be more to life than money. it’s got to be more than a marketplace.
what if the current freedom of mooc enrollment – is what we need everywhere, as in – authentic public ed – free to all the people and concerning all the people. sure many give it a shot and drop out – isn’t that how you suss? and perhaps we are more intrigued initially (meaning the numbers are way skewed), because we’ve been living behind a walled garden for so long. perhaps, once people realize they really can do/be whatever they want, there will be less massiveness, because we become more sophisticated (or less – depending on your take) about daily choices. either way – perhaps freedom to exit is just as important in keeping it legit.
if nothing else – the huge numbers joining moocs and then not finishing is a sign of our engrained curiosity. people are alive, and searching. and hoping.
k-12 mooc via @pgow
but the K-12 MOOC model could bring together a broad diversity of kids with shared passions on a much larger scale. Best of all, such programs would be specifically geared to the developmental needs of pre-college students
perhaps even better if not designated k-12 – diversity of age is great – cross-generational expertise – but making it available to k-12 – huge..
a piece we are seeking to experiment with – bringing together large groups of (perhaps disengaged with school as is) people.. with no strings attached, except… gathering in a space for a convo.. about what geeks them out. today. could change tomorrow.. or could get in space and realize.. it wasn’t exactly what they said, or you heard..
if we’re obsessed with numbers, perhaps we start leaning in and listening to the quiet numbers. like women in the us, [We are the richest and most powerful country in the world,” Clinton said. “Yet many American women today are living shorter lives than their mothers… ], suicide rate, # of people that aren’t happy, don’t feel they belong.
*mooc – The term was coined by Dave Cormier of the University of Prince Edward Island, and Senior Research Fellow Bryan Alexander of the National Institute for Technology in Liberal Education in response to the course designed and led by George Siemens of Athabasca University and Stephen Downes of the National Research Council (Canada). (massive open online courses – great wikipedia read – high recommend)
*sussing – From p. 227 of Bill Taylor‘s Practically Radical, as he shares the story of the netflix prize – announced in 2006 awarded in 2009 – 1 million to anyone who could improve on tech that suggests to people what movie they might like…. the award should serve as a model for other tech companies working on hard problems, argued farhad manjoo, the influential tech columnist of slate.com, who calculated that netflix would have had to shell out more than 3 mill for just one year of the top performers time and that assumes of course, that the company could have sussed out who the top performers were going to be.
Decision making is itself a learning process. Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of a shifting reality. While there is a right answer now, it may be wrong tomorrow due to alterations in the information climate affecting the decision. – Siemens #8 of connectivist principles 2005
there’s a relevance question in higher ed… after many generations saying that college ed is key to success and prosperity, but now – economy is changing so quickly that the degree that they get now might now might not be the same when i finish. i’m not able to choose to study what i think is going to be relevant for me. diyu isn’t a road map but a compass.these transformations don’t just come from the tools, but from an attitude.. summed up in one word…
Don Tapscott on higher ed – via Davos:
Howard’s interviews on moocs:
Cathy writing/diving into moocs.
Rob Reich, the author of this article, is a master teacher:“I believe MOOCs can do better, and that faculty should welcome innovations in different online learning platforms, and the experimentation by some professors in providing online learning experiences on these platforms. Creating a powerful online course is no simple undertaking, as any instructor who has experimented with MOOCs knows. But I believe that MOOCs, over the coming years, will do better than a large lecture class with little or no opportunity for discussion and for which student assessments are machine-graded exams or problem sets. It’s worth noting that such lecture courses constitute the norm for millions of students across all levels of higher education.”
If we were a commercial enterprise we could focus on sales. Then we could focus an ad campaign on the actual reasons people take MOOCs – but we wouldn’t need to worry about whether they were met, only about whether our advertising enticed people to pay the fee. But I think that’s a pretty narrow criterion for success.
My own response treats a MOOC for what it is: a network. ..
process: autonomy, diversity, openness, and interactivity
outcomes: emergent properties
MOOC success, in other words, is not individual success. We each have our own motivations for participating in a MOOC, and our own rewards, which may be more or less satisfied. But MOOC success emerges as a consequence of individual experiences. It is not a combination or a sum of those experiences – taking a poll won’t tell us about them – but rather a result of how those experiences combined or meshed together.
This may not reflect what institutional funders want to hear. But my thinking and hope is that over th long term MOOCs will be self-sustaining, able to draw participants who can see the value of a MOOC for what it is, without needing to support narrow and specific commercial or personal learning objectives.
and here – tons here – high recommend to read the entire pdf:
M – Massive – here I attend not to the success of the MOOC in attracting many people, but in the design elements that make educating many people possible
O – It is worth remarking that by ‘open’ we very clearly intended both the aspects of access and sharing to
be included; what this meant in practice was that we expected course participants not only to use
course resources, curriculum, etc., but also to be involved in the design of these.
O – For a MOOC to be ‘online’ entails that (and I’ll be careful with my wording here) no required element of
the course is required to take place at any particular physical location.
C – To be clear: I am very supportive of the idea of massive open online communities, but the MOOC is a different entity, with its own properties and role in the environment. And specifically:
• a course is bounded by a start date and an end date
• a course is cohered by some common theme or domain of discourse
• a course is a progression of ordered events related to that domain
My own observation (and I was reluctant at first to create a ‘course’ precisely because of the three limitations just specified above) is that the creation of temporary and bounded events allows for engagement between communities that would not normally associate with each other.
Even a focus on why students subscribe to MOOCs will not be revealing. Consider what the founders of Coursera say about most students who sign up: ““Their intent is to explore, find out something about the content, and move on to something else,” said Ms. Koller. Adding tuition fees changes the dynamic,
as does adding credentials at the end of the course. Coursera has learned it can earn money charging for
authentication services11, which satisfies both its need to make money, and a student’s need for a
certificate (though at the expense of no longer being free and open).
a MOOC is a way of gathering people and having them interact, each from their own individual perspective or point of view, in such a way that the structure of the interactions produces new knowledge, that is, knowledge that was not present in any of the individual communications, but is produced as a result of the totality of the communications, in such a way that participants can through participation and immersion in this environment develop in their selves new (and typically unexpected) knowledge relevant to the domain. A MOOC is a vehicle for learning, yes, but it acts this way primarily by being a vehicle for discovery and experience (and not, say, content transmission).
Autonomy – this is essentially the assertion that members of the network (in this case, participants employ their own goals and objectives, judgments and assessment of success in the process of interaction with others …. Without autonomy, a MOOC is not able to adapt to the environment.
Diversity – ..While we typically think of diversity in terms of language, ethnicity or culture, for us diversity applied to a broad range of criteria, including location and time zone, technology of choice, pedagogy, learning style, and more…. The major concern with diversity so broadly construed is that some people might be seen as ‘doing it wrong’. We were, for example, criticized for offering lectures, because it did not follow good constructivist pedagogy; our response was that connectivism is not constructivism, and that it was up to those who preferred to learn through constructivist methods to do so, but not appropriate that they would require that all other participants learn in the same way. Additionally, it should be noted that it
did not matter whether some particular pedagogical choice was in some respects a failure, since the
perceptual recognition that it is a failure constitutes success in its own right.
The free flow of people and information through a MOOC is as important as the organization of the people therein….An interesting side-effect of openness is that there is no clear line dividing those who are in the course and those who are not.
Interactivity – .. It is not simply that members of the network are connected with each other, and that interaction takes places through these connections. It is rather the idea that new learning occurs as a result of this connectedness and interactivity, it emerges from the network as a whole, rather than being transmitted or distributed by one or a few more powerful members.
…numbers know no context. Properties like autonomy, diversity, openness and interactivity are not properly discerned by counting,
but by being recognized.
In this way they are a lot like other properties, like freedom, love and obscenity. A variety of factors – not just number, but context, placement, relevance and salience – come into play (that is why we need neural networks (aka., people)to perceive them, and can’t simply use machines to count them.
the act of learning a discipline – a trade, for example, or a science, or a skill – is more like the learning of a language than it is like learning a set of facts. Yes, there is an element of memory, but the bulk of expertise in a language – or a trade, science or skill – isn’t in knowing the parts, but in fluency and recognition, cumulating in the (almost) intuitive understanding (‘expertise’, as Dreyfus and Dreyfus would argue51). This sort of fluency is acquired by immersion in a language-speaking community (of which a MOOC is a characteristic example) and described by the six elements of literacy listed above.
i’ve participated in several over the years: stephen downes to arielly to clmooc. i’ve tried to at least get a taste for the gamut. mostly participated as a lurker/listener/dabbler. never felt compelled to do assignments. i found good in all of them. but in listening – none of them seemed to be 100% best fit for participants.i think that this statement you made… is how most kids/people must feel about any compulsory situation..
When I think about participating in a MOOC, I wonder why I would want to add another assignment (no matter how playful and meaning it might be) to my list of possible things to do online.i think a sort of – spinach or rock ness – is perpetuated (that those are our only choices) as long as we are blind/afraid/oppressed into not trusting people/learning. and with today’s access.. seems crazy to spend our time beholden to others’ agendas. the only reason today – perhaps – is that we haven’t yet set the world free – (via some mechanism available to all) – from this idea of compulsorizing some basics, or accruing some credentials. and until we do – perhaps the choice of spinach or rock is the best toward that compulsion/credential. (ie: khan is great for a kid wanting to nail an entrance exam or a ged)i’m guessing – once we wake up from that thinking though .. things like moocs will shrink/morph to a more natural role in the realm of life/aliveness. and that natural role – might be the realization fitting with one of Jason Fried’s quote – that work (we insert school – or perhaps moocs) is where we get the least done.i think a key piece/plus to moocs – is the individual choosing how much he/she wants to participate. i think we’re seeing low completion rates because (well – for one – perhaps that’s not the point in learning) we are so much in need of detox/still ness in order to get back to our authentic curiosities. perhaps the flitting around, not completing, that we’re seeing, is more about the our deprevation/blockage of innate curiosities over the years.. and once we have time to get back to that – we’ll see a playing out of a different kind of committed ness.
This report is one of a series of reports describing the histor- ical developments and current state of distance education, online learning, and blended learning. with the intent of informing future research and practice in the emerging discipline of digital learning, this tertiary study focuses on the history and state of distance education, and the under- standing of the large body of empirical research as captured by secondary studies (i.e., meta-analyses and systematic literature reviews). we conducted an automated search for secondary studies in several online digital libraries, and a manual search through Google Scholar and the ten most relevant academic journals. Our search identified 339 sec- ondary studies in the domains of distance education, online learning, and blended learning. of those, 37 secondary studies on distance education research and practice met the selection criteria for final inclusion in our study
Based on the analysis of these secondary sources, three main themes emerged: i) comparison of distance education and traditionalclassroom instruction, ii) identification of important factors of distance education delivery, and iii) factors of institutional adoption of distance education. our results indicate that distance education, when properly planned, designed, and supported by the appropriate mix of technology and pedagogy, is equivalent to, or in certain scenarios more effective than, traditional face-to-face classroom instruc- tion. This highlights the importance of instructional design and the active role of institutions play in providing support structures for instructors and learners.
science of people in schools..
The rapid flow of information, the fast decay of knowledge, and the pace of modern societies have placed high demands on today’s workers for continuous learning and the enhancement of their own knowledge (Toffler, 1991).
work .. as assumed
among many definitions of distance education, one of the more popular and widely used is given by Moore and Kearsley (2004) as “teaching and planned learning in which teaching normally occurs in a dif- ferent place from learning, requiring communication through technologies as well as special institutional organization” (p. 2). given this inherent need to transcend physical dis- tance between students and instructors, distance education has always been highly dependent on the current state of technological development (anderson & Dron, 2010
While there is certainly a need for more accurate descriptions of different features of new technology, many of these terms were used without establishing an accepted and authoritative definition and often described several completely different things (Moore et al., 2011)
as it should be.. no?
makes so much of B irrelevant
The history of distance education teaches us that the general public will readily assume that the technology alone can transform education (Blin & Munro, 2008). even today, this position can be seen in reports related to MOOCs and the “disruptive change” of their technologically inspired approach to learning (Kovanović et al., 2014). More than thirty years ago, Clark (1983) expressed his skepticism toward this belief. Clark (1983) argued that different educational technologies and media are “mere vehicles that deliver instruction but do not influence student achievement any more than the truck that delivers our groceries causes changes in our nutrition. …the choice of vehicle might influence the cost or extent of distributing instruction, but only the content of the vehicle can influence achievement” (p. 445)
on content ness…
on achievement ness..
The fundamental idea behind proficiency assessments is that they can attest to what a person knows; the implied utility is that this information can reliably predict future performance.
There are a myriad of ways to both engage students in learning and to measure whether that learning has occurred. For the first time in 200 years, the tools may exist to reformulate the educational process and what constitutes a credential. This has generated both a sense of possibility and uncertainty within higher education as innovations in degree programs continue to develop and, with them, new actors who may challenge the traditional university mod
Despite the long dispute over the role of universities within society, the meaning of their credentials is often considered standard. at least since kant’s Conflict of the Faculties (1798) and cardinal newman’s The Idea of the University (1854), a core tension of the university has been between its role as a utilitarian trainer of workers on the one hand and bastion of justice, ideas, and change on the other. in the present day, this tension plays out in the demands of industry to produce more computer science majors while humanities departments and liberal arts colleges seek to preserve their funding and a grander view of education as a central component of de- mocracy and social progress. To some extent, this contest is intensified because the meaning of the credential is seen as standard and monolithic. whichever becomes the dominant meaning will dictate the future priorities of institutions and the role of institutions within society.
The standard model of the university credential is to some extent a matter of branding
over the last two decades however, each step in this system has come under question: accreditation, program development, degree earning, and signaling. This new landscape of inquiry and design reveals a tension between the desire to stan- dardize how credentials are measured and an explosion in the possible ways that this standardization could occur. This tension is being played out along two axes with respect tohow credentials are defined: 1) whether by a fixed or flexible amount of time and 2) whether based on knowledge or competency. a review of novel credentialing forms follows, classified in these terms.
previous was 122?
inally, current research and practice also shows that higher education has been pri- marily focused on content design and curriculum development (Siemens, 2014b). However, in order to move forward and “develop personalized and adaptive learning,” the development of personal knowledge graphs and profiles is crucial (Siemens, 2014b). Personalized knowledge graphs present a promising approach for collecting and mapping an individual’s knowledge from learning in various settings (e.g., formal, informal, and workplace), and using the accu- mulated knowledge to bridge the knowledge gaps and provide focused learning materials (Siemens, 2014a, 2014b). On the other hand, some of the main challenges in distance, online, and blended learning relate to developing personalised and adaptive learning pathways and the provision of timely, formative and individualised feedback. given that personalised and adaptive learning are increasingly being incorporated within the research into a new learning approach — digital learning, it is likely that the future of distance, online and blended learning models will be ultimately subsumed by this new learning approach.
Our findings further indicate that contemporary research into online learning almost univocally agrees that structured online discussions with clear guidelines and expectations, well-designed courses with interactive content and flexible deadlines, and con- tinuous instructor involvement that includes the provision of individualized, timely, and formative feedback are the most promising approaches to fostering learning in online environments. however, this also implies a more complex role for the instructor in online settings, and a need for research on instructional strategies that would allow for the development of student self-regulatory skills. implications for future research and practice, as well as the position of online learning within the broader aspect of digital learning are further discussed.p 95
eyond competency, proficiency, and which measures will be applied, questions have also emerged in the domain of assessment regarding how time is treated: is it fixed or flexible? Currently, the vast majority of credentials are dictated by fixed time: the test lasts an hour, a school year is 40 weeks, the degree takes four years. Fixed time standardizes assessment in a convenient way, though it is rigid and its correspondence to learning, knowledge, or skill is neither assured nor obvious (Laitinen, 2012). in contrast, flexible time asks how long it took to complete the task or degree. it provides information about individual capacity and the dynamics of learning but also allows for degree requirements to adjust to students’ lives. The ability to work through a degree either faster or slower allows students to accom-modate jobs and families, thus increasing accessibility to educational opportunities for a wider range of the population. Frameworks for considering time components are bound to be critical in navigating the new complexities in credentialing.
he peer-based assessment model can be seen in the endorsement system employed by Linkedin. endorsements within Linkedin have a very low bar, anyone can endorse anyone else for any particular skill and stories abound of people acquiring skills outside their fields. as such, Linkedin endorsements have been ridiculed as “meaningless,” “pointless,” and a “waste of time” (Wasserman, 2013). in fact, it has been suggested that the only utility endorsements have is to increase click rates and therefore advertising revenue for the company (naughton, 2012). Certainly, within a traditional assessment and credentialing framework this would be true, but Linkedin is not such a tool. although endorsements clearly provide a very noisy signal, if the signal can be parsed from the noise it may provide a useful metric. indeed, in October 2013 Linkedin applied for a patent that utilized en- dorsements to determine the level of expertise of their members (Work, Blue, & Hoffman, 2013). in this case, validity of the measure has been sacrificed to acquire it. Before the internet, this would not have happened, as the logistical cost of data collection would have been too high, involving paper surveys and human coders. The cost in this case may be the irritation of its user base, but the implementation of such data collection is almost trivial. This represents a shift methodologically, with a move away from trying to collect perfect data sets toward preferencing data collection itself. This “Big Data” approach represents not just a technical, but also a philosophical shift in
represents a shift methodologically, with a move away from trying to collect perfect data sets toward preferencing data collection itself. This “Big Data” approach represents not just a technical, but also a philosophical shift in credentialing. it puts far less weight on any particular measure and presumes impermanence. it predicts a world in which skills are fluid and everyone must re-skill constantly. in this world, sacrificing time for accuracy no longer makes sense; an accurate but no longer relevant measure is worth less than a les
in a world where the number of things that can be measured and the number of ways those things can be measured increases, the question about how to organize all this new information becomes more pressing. we are passing from a time when measures were limited and easily controlled to a time when there are many measures and almost anyone can build their own. There are many possible futures: the state may assert control over educational measures, making some measures official and therefore possibly more trustworthy; institutions or corporations may convince the public that particular measures are the most appropriate; or perhaps a technological solution will arise, as Google did, to organize all the measures in a useful way. That said, the role of the human assessor might well change to take on this aspect of the assessment equation. rather than being a “grader,” or being involved in the mechanics of assessment, it will be the role of the teacher — or assessment specialist — to choose the appropriate assessment and data for a particular educational goal or student.
The ultimate goal of the open badge framework is to ensure that all people can “level up” educationally, not just those with access to resources. However, studies of the MOBi framework suggest that the move toward badges will be mediated by how credible the format can appear, which will depend on who is willing to create badges (gibson, Ostashewski, Flintoff, grant, & Knight, 2013). This may well be dependent on traditional higher education institutions and credible institutions, such as the Smithsonian, who can lend their brands to the endeavour.
we can imagine a world where the data associated with a badge is so detailed that it pro- vides the means to make predictions about a person’s performance on a particular project. a complex variable store that can be queried to match an individual to a job or educationalprogram, perhaps even to predict the amount of time it will take the person to acquire the skills to tackle a job. So in the future, perhaps time will be neither fixed nor flexible but will itself become an outcome.
The closest example may be the Minerva Project (https://minerva.kgi.edu/), a for-profit residential college/start up in San Francisco. One of Minerva’s main points of differentia- tion from a traditional college is that it revolves around an online platform technologically designed with pedagogical and psychological research in mind. although located in the same room, students interact with each other and the instructor largely through the online platform, the Live Interactive Seminar. This allows easy implementation of various pedagog- ical techniques, such as flexible grouping and short quizzes. it also tracks student answers, which are then stored as profile data that can be used in a competency-based model or as a traditional milestone. instructors and program directors receive detailed information and analysis of their students in real time that helps guide instruction, provide feedback for students, and alter course design. it is not mentioned in minerva publicity materials, but presumably all their student data means that students could graduate with a detailed profile of themselves that could inform their future job searches, demonstrate their skills, or pursue future stud
The complexity of the credentialing landscape has dramatically increased over the last decade. The rise of online education and the accompanying changes in the goals of the higher education sector have produced a confusing mix of uncertainty and possibility. in- novation in credentialing is occurring in several areas, both as part of traditional university programming and from outside, for-profit entities as varied as boot camps and MOOCs. This new landscape of inquiry and design reveals a tension between a desire to standardize how credentials are measured and an explosion in the possible ways that this standardiza- tion could occur. it has been argued here that this tension is being played out along two axes with respect to how credentials are defined: 1) whether the credential is defined by a fixed or flexible amount of time and 2) whether assessment is based on knowledge or competency. examination of novel credentialing forms can be classified in these terms to try to come to grips with the possible future of credentialin
conclusion of assess and credential section
esearch theme 3: Self-regulated learning and social learning
Self-regulated learning, social learning, and social identity were the main topics discussed in the third cluster. analyzing cognitive (e.g. memory capacity and previous knowledge), learning strategies and motivational factors, the proposals from this cluster aimed to identifypotential trajectories that could reveal students at risk. Moreover, this cluster addressed issues of intellectual property and digital literacy. There was no prevalent platform in this cluster, while courses were usually in the fields such as english language, mathematics and physics
self directed math
This paper explores four factors that influence future technologies: who has control, how well are the technologies integrated with other tool- sets and the experiences of learners, who has ownership of the data and the technology, and what is the nature of the learning structure in terms of centralization and decen- tralization. These four factors are then used to explore a range of emerging technologies that provide an indication of the types of learning infrastructures that academics and institutional leaders need to consider in their resource and pedagogical planning
These four points — control, integration, ownership, and structure — form the basis of analysis of different technology toolsets and ways in which these toolsets are utilized in higher education
The landing was deliberately designed and nurtured as a diverse learning commons. Though a lot of use has been made of the system to support formal courses, it has at least equal value as a networking space, a place for ad hoc working groups and committees, a space to share ideas, work in progress, observations, and — sometimes — complaints. With a nod to Jane Jacobs’ observations on what makes a city area thrive, it was built so that there should be many reasons one might need or wish to be there, the intent being to keep it lively and filled with visible activity. This has many benefits, not least of which are the opportunities to learn from what others
Federated wiki is a new technology developed largely by the inventor of wiki, Ward Cunningham. Like wiki, it encourages revision, reuse, and extension of community ideas. however, it does this not through a centralized site, but through a federation of individually owned wikis that fork text15, data, formulas, and media from one another. it has been called “github for Wiki,” but is perhaps better explained as a unique mix of blogging and wiki.
With Ward Cunningham’s assistance, Mike Caulfield (Washington State University vancouver) has been investigating the application of the technology to education. historically, blogging has provided a reflection and communication space for distributed courses. it is hoped that federated wiki could provide a similar space in such courses for loosely coupled collaboration and cooperation around text and data16. The “Fedwiki Happening” run in December 2014 explored the use of federated wiki in a distributed learning environment. This experiment was a follow-up to the successful use of federated wiki in a traditional college class.
The results were intriguing. happening participants were told to explore their academic or professional interests on their own wiki, and to fork and edit elements of other participant wikis if they found them useful to their own learning goals. in the Happening, rather than have them reflect in social space, students were asked to engage in the “mining” of various things they read for ideas, examples, and data that might be applied to other problems (in this way, the wiki borrows from design patterns methodology in software). By abstracting ideas and examples from texts, participants increased their understanding of the texts, and by presenting the results in a modular way, they provided materials through which other students could advance their own investigations. even with the small number of participants, a surprising number of serendipitous connections occurred
ProSolo maps curriculum activities directly to learner competencies and outcomes, allowing for easy unbundling and reassembling of degree programs and courses. ProSolo unpacks the rigidity of existing programs to cater to alternate educational pathways, pro- viding students with new opportunities to gain recognition for prior learning and achieved credentials and relevant life and work experiences. ProSolo doesn’t just break the concept of the credit hour — it totally removes it