einstein quantum riddle (doc)
53 min doc found on top documentary site: https://topdocumentaryfilms.com/einstein-quantum-riddle/
Quantum Riddle | Quantum Entanglement – Documentary HD 2019
Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon that occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the others, even when the particles are separated by a large distance.
Measurements of physical properties such as position, momentum, spin, and polarization, performed on entangled particles are found to be perfectly correlated.
Einstein and others considered such behavior to be impossible, as it violated the local realism view of causality (Einstein referring to it as “spooky action at a distance”) and argued that the accepted formulation of quantum mechanics must therefore be incomplete.
The utilization of entanglement in communication and computation is a very active area of research.
An entangled system is defined to be one whose quantum state cannot be factored as a product of states of its local constituents; that is to say, they are not individual particles but are an inseparable whole. In entanglement, one constituent cannot be fully described without considering the other(s).
In this section, the entropy of a mixed state is discussed as well as how it can be viewed as a measure of quantum entanglement… Most (but not all) of these entanglement measures reduce for pure states to entanglement entropy, and are difficult (NP-hard) to compute
11 min – david kaiser (main guy? brown suit coat blue shirt brown tee under): these scientists were pioneers of quantum mechanics (1927 conf w einstein).. their experiments were showing that deep inside objects.. tiny particles like atoms and orbiting electrons were not solid little spheres.. they seemed fuzzy and undefined..
un label able
12 min – so this group was plumbing deeper and deeper (increase soccer ball to size of earth.. then take a look at what’s inside) to find what they hoped would be a bedrock of what the world was made of .. and to their surprise.. they found things less and less solid as they dug in.. this world was not tiny little bricks that got smaller and smaller.. at some point these bricks gave way to moosh.. that looked like solidity.. solidness.. in fact.. became very confusing and kind of a whole new way of thinking about nature..
theory of quantum mechanics presented at the meeting was strange.. it said that a particle.. like an electron.. isn’t physically real until it’s observed.. measured by an instrument that can detect it.. before it’s measured.. an electron is just a fuzzy wave of probability
13 min – (sean carroll @seanmcarroll): it’s like a wave of all those possibilities.. it’s not that an electron is at one place or the other we just don’t know.. it’s that the electron really is a combo of every possible place it could be until we look at it
so observation as a deadening.. in order to define
13 min – the laws of nature were no longer definite statements about what’s going to happen next.. they were just statements about probabilities.. and einstein felt.. well that’s defeat.. you’re giving up on the heart of what physics has been.. namely .. to give a complete description of reality
14 min – for einstein that.. particles only pop into existence when they are observed is akin to magic.. it is said he asked ‘do you really believe the moon is not there when you aren’t looking at it
these are diff ideas.. no?.. not there vs not according to my defn
15 min – (on einstein asking niels bohr every morning about a loophole and by eve he’d have an answer) to bohr quantum mechanics not only explained experimental results.. it’s mathematics were elegant and beautiful
of math and men – the beauty of an equation over the lifeblood of a human/nature
and since einstein hadn’t found flaws in their equations.. they left the meeting feeling more confident than ever in their ideas.. einstein didn’t give up his conviction that quantum mechanics was flawed.. and in his refusal to accept the implications of the theory.. he would wind up on something even weirder
16 min – einstein comes to america and works w 2 other scientists to find that the equation of qm led to an impossibility
17 min – qm said that if we measure one of these connected particles .. causing it to snap out of its fuzzy state.. the other one .. no matter the distance.. mysteriously snaps out of its state at the same instant.. the 1935 paper that described this.. has become einstein’s most referenced work of all
19 min – to explain qm – it’s like two fixed die.. rolled.. and with this random mixing.. they keep coming up with same number
20 min – for einstein this concept conflicted w the most basic theory we use to describe reality.. space.. for him.. everything that exists is located in space.. space together with time were his key ingredients in his theory of relativity.. e=mc^2
(sean carroll @seanmcarroll): einstein believed in what we now call the principle of locality.. that if something happened here.. it shouldn’t interfere w something that happened over there..
for einstein .. it’s simply common sense that if objects are separated in space.. for one to affect the other.. something must travel between them.. and that traveling takes time
21 min – quantum activity could be explained if they were communicating.. instantly sending a signal to the other.. but would require a signal traveling faster that the speed of light.. something einstein’s theory of relativity had proven impossible.. and it would mean the particles were fuzzy and undefined.. until the moment they were observed.. instead.. einstein thought the particles should be real all along
another diff.. observed=real..?
e: they must carry with them a hidden layer of deeper physics that determines their properties from the start.. like magic tricks.. have a hidden explanation
determine their properties? or capabilities? sounds like properties here is an assumption of a pattern.. as in no free will.. no random ness allowed.. no entropy.. hard-won order.. et al..
22 min – but this hidden physics was missing from quantum theory .. so einstein, podolsky and rosen argued that qm was incomplete (the e, p, r paradox)
podolsky getting excited and running to the paper.. and einstein really upset and apparently.. never talking to him again
when bohr heard about einstein’s paper he wrote an obscure response .. arguing that one particle could somehow mysteriously influence the other.. this seemingly impossible phenom became known as quantum entanglement.. but einstein dismissed it as spooky actions at a distance
23 min – no one could think of an experiment to test whether einstein or bohr was correct.. but that didn’t stop physicists and engineers from making use of qm to do new things
mumford non-specialized law.. fromm spontaneous law
23 min – in 30s-40s debate around epr (3 guys names) paper dies down but quantum theory takes off .. the mathematics leads to all kinds of amazing developments
entanglement aside.. the equations of qm enable the manhattan project to develop the atomic bomb.. lazers.. transisiters (building blocks of electronics), digital revolution soon follows.. all made possible by equations of qm
so.. not so amazing.. more like killer..
perhaps this is what vinay means by root – more about us using a cancer (a non legit) to build bigger/better cancers
24 min – einstein’s questions remain unanswered until 50s.. physicist from ireland .. john bell.. makes a breakthru.. ‘what he considered almost a dishonesty amongst his teachers’.. saying.. einstein’s questions about qm had not been addressed
25 min – he got into shouting matches w his profs.. ‘don’t tell us that bohr solved all the problems.. this deserves greater thought
26 min – qm not renowned.. so had to work another job – cern – in 64 bell published paper – showing bohr’s einstein’s made diff predictions.. and answer would reveal bohr vs einstein – in hind sight we see this is biggest paper in physics as a whole.. dutifully filed on library shelves.. but then forgotten
27 min – john clauser stumbles upon the paper a few years later.. but no experimental evidence.. so john worked on bell’s theory.. at berkeley.. clauser and freedman constructed world’s first bell experiment.. outcome was what bohr’s qm predicted.. spooky did exist in modern world.. was einstein wrong?
30 min – first to address this..1975 physicists at berkley.. but hippies.. the fundamental fysics group.. some members would experiment w psychedelic drugs.. they were in the flow of the hippie scene.. and that group was just mesmerized by the question of entanglement
31 min – clauser: they were doing their beset to link eastern mysticism w quantum entanglement.. their books became best seller – ie: the tao of physics.. the great common oneness.. to my knowledge.. no useful connections to eastern mysticism were discovered by the group.. but it was fun
32 min – the fundamental fysics groups may not have connected entanglement to easter mysticism.. but as seeing entanglement as center to physics.. they were decades ahead of their time
40 years later.. cutting edge labs around the world are now racing to harness quantum entanglement to create revolutionary new techs.. like quantum computers
33 min – ghose: in every day computers – start w bit – 0 and 1s – off and on.. with a quantum computer you start w not a bit but a quantum bit.. which is not really a 0 or 1 but can be more fluid
makes use of fuzziness of the world – a qubit as it’s called can be a 0 or a 1 or a combo of both.. not just pairs.. but groups.. the more qubits the greater the processing power
so still trying to define the fuzzy.. trying to observe/deaden
ie: google created tiny chip that holds an array of 72 qubits.. researchers task to send signals to control and entangle them.. ‘thinking of it as a faster version of pc would be a great slight.. it can be much more than that’
34 min – by using entangled qubits.. quantum computers can tackle real world problems that traditional computers simply can’t cope with.. for ie: a salesman has to travel to several cities and wants to find shortest route.. w 30 cities.. so many possible routes.. quantum can resolve in fraction of number of steps; cracking codes;
yeah.. not so sure getting at the essence of what we need tech for.. just more band aids for symptoms of whales in sea world
mufleh humanity law: we have seen advances in every aspect of our lives except our humanity– Luma Mufleh
35 min – a quantum computer could crack our best encryption codes in minutes.. where reg/super couldn’t do it in months
36 min – but entanglement offers a deeper solution.. china .. leading way.. send secret messages that detect any attempts to eavesdrop.. can carry secure info.. used by banks and data centers..
mufleh humanity law: we have seen advances in every aspect of our lives except our humanity– Luma Mufleh
38 min – working on first space secure communication system using quantum entanglement.. theory can be used to create totally secure global communication system.. creating a completely unhackable internet of the quantum future.. possible by quantum entanglement
atomic bomb ness verse two or whatever
39 min – but there’s a problem .. what if quantum entanglement – spooky interaction – isn’t real after all.. it could be that qubits aren’t the answer to complete security
try this guys: gershenfeld something else law
years after clauser and freedman experiment.. others begin to test .. to see if there might be an illusion of entanglement.. so effect might not be so spooky after all.. maybe what looks like entanglement is an accident.. and maybe the world still acts like einstein thought
sound keeps going in and out
41 min – (this is the experiment that is basis for doc – entanglement or no – by detecting light from different quasars)
sound out for 3 min
45 min – it’s working – (experiment)
then sound out again.. ha
46 min – david kaiser: we clearly see correlations that responds to qm.. the results show entanglement.. this remaining loophole seems to be closed
47 min – there’s hardly any room left for an einstein explanation.. accepting entanglement has huge implications
ghose: we’re left with conclusions about the universe that make no sense.. science is stepping outside of all of our boundaries of common sense.. it’s almost like being in alice in wonderland.. where everything is possible..
well not quite.. or we’d be fixing deeper problems
(and sound goes out again)
49 min – so far we have not had a single theory that is both quantum mechanical and reproduces the theory of einstein’s theory of relativity.. maybe the secret is in..
then no sound.. ha
we’re learning today that we might have to give up what einstein held as sacred of space and time building whole universe
rather.. holigraphic universe via far away sphere.. ultimate of reality is on screen of that outers sphere.. in the end just have this quantum mechanical world.. no space any more.. just disappears.. in some sense paradoxes .. the epr of entanglement.. disappear in to thin air
51 min – (sean carroll @seanmcarroll): truly understanding quantum mechanics will only happen when we put ourselves on the entanglement side.. and stop privileging the world that we see and start thinking about the world as it actually is.. t
entanglement et al
science has made enormous progress for centuries by breaking complicated systems down into parts.. when we come to the phenom of quantum entanglement .. that scheme breaks.. when it comes to the bedrock of qm.. the whole is more than the sum of its parts
zelinger: the basic motivation is just to learn how nature works.. what’s really very hard.. einstein said it very nicely.. he’s not interested this (?) or that(?).. he just wanted to know .. what were god’s thoughts when he created the world..