tit for tat ness

wikipedia small

Tit for tat is an English saying meaning “equivalent retaliation”. It is also a highly effective strategy in game theoryfor the iterated prisoner’s dilemma. The strategy was first introduced by Anatol Rapoport in Robert Axelrod’s two tournaments, held around 1980. Notably, it was (on both occasions) both the simplest strategy and the most successful in direct competition.

axelrod’s book is what julian was quoting below

The phrase originally came from another phrase “tip for tap”, first used in 1558.

An agent using this strategy will first cooperate, then subsequently replicate an opponent’s previous action. If the opponent previously was cooperative, the agent is cooperative. If not, the agent is not. This is similar to superrationality and reciprocal altruism in biology.

The success of the tit-for-tat strategy, which is largely cooperative despite that its name emphasizes an adversarial nature, took many by surprise.

success (sounds like quote from julian’s tweet)

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This result may give insight into how groups of animals (and particularly human societies) have come to live in largely (or entirely) cooperative societies, rather than the individualistic “red in tooth and claw” way that might be expected from individuals engaged in a Hobbesian state of nature. This, and particularly its application to human society and politics, is the subject of Robert Axelrod‘s book The Evolution of Cooperation.

yeah.. that one..

i’d say calling it a success is more like looking at whales in sea world.. ie: competition is a disturbance to undisturbed ecosystem

Moreover, the tit-for-tat strategy has been of beneficial use to social psychologists and sociologists in studying effective techniques to reduce conflict.

reduce them..? or keep them sulking/perculating/simmering .. in the background..?

measuring things.. is a killer.. ie: marsh exchange law

Research has indicated that when individuals who have been in competition for a period of time no longer trust one another, the most effective competition reverser is the use of the tit-for-tat strategy.

so intoxication to detox from competition..?

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In the case of conflict resolution, the tit-for-tat strategy is effective for several reasons: the technique is recognized as clearniceprovocable, and forgiving. Firstly, It is a clear and recognizable strategy. Those using it quickly recognize its contingencies and adjust their behavior accordingly. Moreover, it is considered to be *nice as it begins with cooperation and only defects in following competitive move.

*nice.. as in how we teach 5 yr olds to smile.. in school/society.. in order to be civilized..?

The strategy is also provocable because it provides immediate retaliation for those who compete. Finally, it is forgiving as it immediately produces cooperation should the competitor make a cooperative move.

The implications of the tit-for-tat strategy have been of relevance to conflict research, resolution and many aspects of applied social science

perhaps for whales in sea world..

While Axelrod has empirically shown that the strategy is optimal in some cases of direct competition, two agents playing tit for tat remain vulnerable. A one-time, single-bit error in either player’s interpretation of events can lead to an unending “death spiral”: if one agent defects and the opponent cooperates, then both agents will end up alternating cooperate and defect, yielding a lower payoff than if both agents were to continually cooperate. This situation frequently arises in real world conflicts, ranging from schoolyard fights to civil and regional wars.

broken feedback loop

The reason for these issues is that tit for tat is not a subgame perfect equilibrium, except under knife-edge conditions on the discount rate.

rather.. not humane (to measure transactions.. ie: 10 day cares)

again.. measuring things.. is a killer.. ie: marsh exchange law

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Furthermore, the tit-for-tat strategy is not proved optimal in situations short of total competition. For example, when the parties are *friends it may be best for the friendship when a player cooperates at every step despite occasional deviations by the other player. Most situations in the real world are less competitive than the total competition in which the tit-for-tat strategy won its competition.

how about *humans

Tit for two tats is similar to tit for tat in that it is nice, retaliating, forgiving and non-envious, the only difference between the two being how forgiving the strategy is.

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This strategy was put forward by Robert Axelrod during his second round of computer simulations at RAND.

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Peer-to-peer file sharing

BitTorrent peers use tit-for-tat strategy to optimize their download speed. More specifically, most BitTorrent peers use a variant of Tit for two Tats which is called regular unchoking in BitTorrent terminology. BitTorrent peers have a limited number of upload slots to allocate to other peers. Consequently, when a peer’s upload bandwidth is saturated, it will use a tit-for-tat strategy. Cooperation is achieved when upload bandwidth is exchanged for download bandwidth. Therefore, when a peer is not uploading in return to our own peer uploading, the BitTorrent program will choke the connection with the uncooperative peer and allocate this upload slot to a hopefully more cooperating peer. Regular unchoking corresponds very strongly to always cooperating on the first move in prisoner’s dilemma. Periodically, a peer will allocate an upload slot to a randomly chosen uncooperative peer (unchoke). This is called optimistic unchoking. This behavior allows searching for more cooperating peers and gives a second chance to previously non-cooperating peers. The optimal threshold values of this strategy are still the subject of research.

Explaining reciprocal altruism in animal communities

Studies in the prosocial behaviour of animals have led many ethologists and evolutionary psychologists to apply tit-for-tat strategies to explain why altruism evolves in many animal communities. ..Their application of game theory to the evolution of animal strategies launched an entirely new way of analysing animal behaviour.

Reciprocal altruism works in animal communities where the cost to the benefactor in any transaction of food, mating rights, nesting or territory is less than the gains to the beneficiary. The theory also holds that the act of altruism should be reciprocated if the balance of needs reverse. Mechanisms to identify and punish “cheaters” who fail to reciprocate, in effect a form of tit for tat, are important to regulate reciprocal altruism. For example, tit-for-tat is suggested to be the mechanism of cooperative predator inspection behavior in guppies.

let’s go w rat park.. rather than whales (guppies) in sea world

War

The tit-for-tat inability of either side to back away from conflict, for fear of being perceived as weak or as cooperating with the enemy, has been the source of many conflicts throughout history.

However, the tit for tat strategy has also been detected by analysts in the spontaneous non-violent behaviour, called “live and let live” that arose during trench warfare in the First World War. Troops dug in only a few hundred feet from each other would evolve an unspoken understanding. If a sniper killed a soldier on one side, the other could expect an equal retaliation. Conversely, if no one was killed for a time, the other side would acknowledge this implied “truce” and act accordingly. This created a “separate peace” between the trenches.

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adding page this day:

‘What accounts for TIT FOR TAT’s robust success is its combination of being nice, retaliatory, forgiving, and clear.’

Original Tweet: https://twitter.com/jwaterslynch/status/1028130517537812481

success..? or sweet smelling poison..?

what’s the quote from?

@monk51295 The evolution of cooperation by Robert Axelrod

Original Tweet: https://twitter.com/jwaterslynch/status/1029502151792324609

1981

https://www.amazon.com/Evolution-Cooperation-Revised-Robert-Axelrod/dp/0465005640

on rabit hole ness – was reading julian’s tweets because michel has just tweeted this:

Entrepreneurial Communities, Immaterial Commons and Working Futures as Exemplified in Coworking – P2P Foundation https://t.co/BJufd4WCSL (looks like a great PhD thesis!)

Original Tweet: https://twitter.com/mbauwens/status/1029262616672329728

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gift ness

obligation

tit for tat ness

reciprocity

measuring things..

marsh exchange law

we have to get back to our undisturbed ecosystem

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