black panther (doc)
Original Tweet: https://twitter.com/museummammy/status/805546370916618243
The Black Panthers Vanguard Of The Revolution’ Full Film Documentary 2015
clayborne carson: this was a revolutionary time.. 50 countries in the world gained their independence before the founding of the black panther party.. people getting drafted..saying: if we’re going to fight.. let’s fight right here in la or oakland.. that made a lot of sense
2 min – we couldn’t unsee what we saw…the rage was in the streets… it was everywhere..
jamal joseph (@jjpantherbaby) (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jamal_Joseph):
Joseph served 5½ years in Leavenworth, where he earned two college degrees and wrote his first play. To date, he has written five plays and two volumes of poetry. He earned his BA summa cum laude from the University of Kansas while at Leavenworth. His first position after incarceration was at Touro College, in East Harlem. While there he was instrumental in arranging for historic graduation ceremonies at the Apollo Theatre. with a graduation address by Ossie Davis, preceded by a spectacular Graduation Procession down the middle of 125th Street He is a full professor and former chair of Columbia University’s Graduate Film Division and the artistic director of the New Heritage Theatre Group in Harlem. He has been featured on HBO’s Def Poetry Jam, BET’s American Gangster and on Tupac Shakur’s The Rose That Grew from Concrete Volumes 1 and 2. He is the author of the interactive biography on Tupac Shakur, Tupac Shakur Legacy
jamal: 1966 – oakland – being black in america meant.. didn’t walk down street with same sense of safety.. going thru daily violence from police..
william calhoun (nothing)
wayne pharr (book: https://www.amazon.com/Nine-Lives-Black-Panther-Survival/dp/1613749163): what we go thru on a daily basis
elbert big man howard (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elbert_Howard):
Howard spent several years in the United States Air Force in Europe. After receiving an honorable discharge from the Air Force, Howard moved to Oakland California. While attending Merritt College, Howard met Bobby Seale and Huey P. Newton. In 1966, at the age of 28, he became one of the six original founding members of the Black Panther Party. The others were Bobby Seale, Huey Newton, “L’il” Bobby Hutton, Reggie Forte and Sherman Forte. Howard was an active member of the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense from 1966 through 1974.
elbert: when first met bobby and huey they were forming an org.. for primarily self-defense.. just org’d to deal with problems in oakland..
huey newton (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huey_P._Newton):
Huey Percy Newton (February 17, 1942 – August 22, 1989) was an African-American political activist and revolutionary who, along with Bobby Seale, co-founded the Black Panther Party in 1966. He continued to pursue an education, eventually earning a Ph.D. in social philosophy. In 1989 he was shot and killed in Oakland, California.
huey: use black panther as symbol because nature of a panther doesn’t strike.. will back up first.. but if aggressor continues… will strike out..
sherwin forte (nothing really): huey had studied the law.. and at that time..anyone could carry a firearm.. who did not have a felony conviction.. could not be concealed.. (huey quoting it to reporters)
5 min – elbert: huey said going to carry gun legally.. maintain legal distance.. and observe officers in performance of their duties..
emory douglas (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emory_Douglas): describing the drive arounds..
6 min – sherwin: we would stop.. get out of cars.. walk up to scene.. those w/rifles carry them in the open..
huey: stood at a distance where police couldn’t say we were interfering with their arrest.. to make sure there was no brutality..
ray gaul (oakland police dept): describing
sherwin: no one did anything until the policemen ejected a round in the chamber.. then we would all eject rounds in the chamber.. and all up and down the street.. could hear…
7 min – ray: then they would swing weapon back around down .. get in car .. and drive off.. pretty intimidating
sherwin: we referred to ourselves as the vanguard .. and we were setting .. by example.. a new course that we wanted the entire community to follow
bobby seale (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bobby_Seale):
Robert George “Bobby” Seale (born October 20, 1936) is an American political activist. He and fellow activist Huey P. Newton co-founded the Black Panther Party.
bobby: police went to local congressman to get billed written on
sherwin: on them wanting bobby (a bit more cautious) rather than huey to go to state capitol
sherwin: caravan to sacremento (they were getting a bill passed to make it illegal to carry loaded firearm)..
9 min – emory: about 30 of us… most had some weapon.. on state capital on the lawn.. reagan.. then state governeor.. was there holding this press conference… as soon as press saw us..come over to us
bobby: speaking to press.. some got ahead of me and wound up on the floor of state legislature..
marched into capital.. then after retreated to service station several blocks away…
emory: i remember cop seeing us and getting on his phone…and that’s when they started to swoop down on us from everywhere…..
taking guns away..
11 min – sherwin: news of this in every newspaper (capital is invaded).. tv.. radio ..et al… across the nation.. put us on center stage
michael mccarty (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mF4ZpuicNC4):Published on Jun 29, 2013
In 1968, Michael McCarty was an outstanding high school student at the Jesuit St. Ignatius HS in Chicago. He had “full ride” scholarships for more than two prestigious universities. “Unfortunately,” McCarty had a social conscience, and in that era of struggle for primitive civil rights, McCarty was a leader in protest appealing to school authorities for classes in Afro-American history. He was quickly expelled and did not graduate. Looking for ways to fulfill his mission, McCarty investigated the new Black Panther Party for Self Defense, where he was accepted by leader Fred Hampton. McCarty was pressured to spy for the FBI, but refused. So he lost his job in the downtown post office. That year, leader Fred Hampton was murdered at 4am in his sleep by the overwhelming force of an FBI-Chicago Police Department assassination squad.
michael: when i heard about sacremento i was like.. damn these brothers are bad.. in capital.. packin..
mohammed mubarak (http://www.eurweb.com/2015/10/exclusive-former-black-panther-says-new-panthers-far-removed/#): the boldness.. courageousness.. arrogance.. put a whole new face on them.. i said..man i want to be a part of this.. whatever that is..
12 min –
tareka lewis (http://www.historyisaweapon.com/defcon1/cleaverwomenpowerrev.html): i walked in and said wanted to join.. and they just laughed.. i didn’t know there were other women at that time.. then i asked them .. could i have a gun..
interesting.. all other docs.. esp of white econ guys.. wikipedia links et al.. this is as close as i could get (in same amount of time) to ie: tareka..
ericka huggins (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ericka_Huggins) (also in above article): john huggins.. we need to leave this stupid campus (in ny).. we have work to do.. and we drove from ny to west coast.. joined party ..
13 min – we want: freedom; decent housing; education; end to police brutality;
landon williams (closest i could find.. in alex rackley’s wikipedia page: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alex_Rackley):
In the spring of 1969, Rackley came under suspicion. His loyalty was questioned, and rumors circulated that he was passing information about the Panthers to the FBI. The situation was exacerbated by the presence of two national Panther figures from the California headquarters: Field Marshal George Sams, Jr., and Landon Williams. The two men had arrived on the east coast in May with the intention of instilling “discipline” into the party.
landon: people joined for all kinds of reasons.. but panthers had a 10 pt platform.. like the fundamental organizing/orientation tool
jamal: civil rights movement was basically a southern movement.. so when had org like the panthers.. taking on ie: housing, welfare, health.. that was stuff people of the north could relate to .. and rally behind
phyllis jackson (http://lfla.org/event/the-black-panthers-portraits-from-an-unfinished-revolution/): our attack was not only against white supremacy.. but it was also about capitalism.. we actually thought.. that the way that capitalism created a working class.. that was kept absolutely destitute.. that was wrong..
elaine brown (@sistaelaine) (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaine_Brown):
Fred Hampton (August 30, 1948 – December 4, 1969) was an American activist and revolutionary, chairman of the Illinois chapter of the Black Panther Party (BPP), and deputy chairman of the national BPP. Hampton was assassinated while sleeping at his apartment during a raid by a tactical unit of the Cook County, Illinois State’s Attorney’s Office, in conjunction with the Chicago Police Department and the Federal Bureau of Investigation in December 1969. A civil lawsuit filed in 1970 resulted in a settlement of $1.85 million in 1982. The background and events of Hampton’s murder have been chronicled in several documentary films.
elaine: we took the position that in order for us to be free that system had to be dismantled.. we could not be free in a system that oppressed us in the first place.. so you have to get rid of that system.. – @sistaelaine
14 min – we were not after the church/muslim folks.. we wanted the bro on the corner.. who was getting head banged in.. going to jail for traffic ticket
every city.. wanted a chapter of the black panther party
kathleen cleaver (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kathleen_Neal_Cleaver): we would send members to help connect them to us.. but destablizing way it was growing.. too fast/big
15 min – william: there was no screening process..members came from off streets.. we didn’t know who a lot of these people were.. we didn’t have time for.. who are you..
mark kurlansky (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mark_Kurlansky): eldridge cleaver (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eldridge_Cleaver -Cleaver and Newton eventually fell out with each other, resulting in a split that weakened the party.) comes out with this book – soul on ice – best seller – joins panthers.. panthers have gotten themselves..a star.. a literary star
16 min –
clayborne carson (@ClayborneCarson) (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clayborne_Carson): huey had vision.. bobby has personality.. eldridge made party credible..
felipe luciano (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felipe_Luciano): eldridge had this incredible ability to encapsulate a thought in a few sentences and form it into artistic state that pointed/stabbed right into the heart of the enemy.. and he did that all of the time.. now.. was he always correct.. no.. was he insane.. yeah.. and he got a lot of people hurt..
marvin x (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marvin_X): i said.. they are not going to be able to control eldridge.. uncontrollable personality.. who could be in convo w him and he not be the leader.. nobody.. and that’s basically how it ended up
lise pearlman (http://www.therealtrialofthe20thcentury.com/abouttheauthor.html): handcuffed to a gurney.. arrested murder and expected to face persecution
19 min – kathleen: a lot of the others were jailed for protests they’d done in sacremento.. so eldridge was the only available spokesperson
edlridge: huey free or open war..
20 min – kathleen: free huey.. became a huge movement..
21 min – eldridge: calling us anti-white.. we don’t hate no one because of color.. we hate oppression.. we hate the killing of black people in our communities..
kathleen: people turned out.. wanted to help us.. there was this gathering of connection.. to the black panthers.. that was diff than before..
Hampton’s fiancée, Deborah Johnson, was sleeping next to him when the police raid began. She was forcibly removed from the room by the police officers while Hampton lay unconscious in bed.
deborah: it was a rhythm.. to how we spoke
jamal: rise of black is beautiful..
julian bond (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Julian_Bond): on people (everyone).. wanting to be like this
24 min – kathleen: bulk of panthers were teenagers.. so.. so young.. and hadn’t happened before.. we recognized how startling it looked to other people
25 min –
rita williams-garcia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rita_Williams-Garcia): w/black panthers.. a completely diff message.. as a 12 yr old.. you have this whole other portrayal of self..
kathleen: photographers took advantage.. and that look (big afro, leather jackets, shades).. that became a hit..
jim dunbar (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Dunbar): i think the black panthers really understood the media.. they knew what we were after.. they knew what we were focusing on.. we exploited the black panthers.. and they used us to their advantage.. as a voice of protest
27 min – eldridge.. breakfast program.. 2 hours prep
david lemieux (https://www.instagram.com/p/BBf59kLolg6/): studies coming out about kids not doing well in school because of no breakfast..we just took that info and a program was developed to serve breakfast to children..
(phyllis?): i was embarrassed to.. then went and the kids were all laughing.. then the stigma – or what you thought the stigma was.. went away.. and got to see.. yes.. this is what the black panthers are..
28 min – david: we were showing love for our children.. that’s a big deal..
beverly gage (@beverlygage – historian): caught on.. served about 20 000 meals a week to young people in 19 diff communities.. so wasn’t fly by night .. really was making a big difference..
donna murch (@murchnik – historian): just at moment panthers turning toward free (breakfast/clinic/food) programs and repudiating this earlier advocacy of arms defense.. and police patrols.. j edgar hoover attacks the panthers..
jeff haas (http://www.hamptonbook.com/Hampton_Book/The_Author.html – the assasination of fred hampton.. author/attorney): hoover saw any form of black organizing as a threat to the status quo as he saw it.. change that would have involved equality.. that would have put power in black people’s hands was very much a threat to hoover.. he started something called… cointellpro.. directed against what he called black nationalist hate groups..
m wesley swearingen (fbi – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M._Wesley_Swearingen): cointellpro was the abbreviation of counter intelligence program..
jeff: the purpose of it.. to expose..disrupt.. misdirect.. discredit.. or otherwise neutralize the activities of black nationalists
30 min – m wesley: neutralize could mean.. making somebody an informant.. or putting somebody in jail.. or having somebody killed.. hoover was sending letters to various offices almost on a weekly basis to come up with new ideas to go after members
jeff: 245 of 290 cointelpro actions were against the black panthers.. one of the mandates was.. do not make this program public.. do not tell anybody that it exists…
scot brown (historian – http://www.spotlight.ucla.edu/faculty/scot-brown_afr-ameri-stud/): fbi has a memo that states the objectives of counter intelligence operations.. 1\ prevent rise of (black) messiah 2\ prevent growth among youth 3\ prevent militant black groups from gaining respectability.. by isolating these groups.. they were very explicit in stating these goals..
i thought.. don’t tell anyone they exist..?
ericka: we were followed everyday.. harassed.. phones tapped.. families harassed
jeff (?): we must create suspicion with respect to their respective spouses.. and your imagination and resourcefulness must be employed in order for the bureau to be successful
landon: they would send letters to may wife.. that would say: landon is sleeping with this woman or that woman.. then when i got arrested.. the fbi came to me and said.. look .. we’ve got all this evidence.. all these people are going to flip and turn on you.. we’re going to execute you.. we got you now.. but .. if you will be an informant for us then we’ll let you go
william o’neal (informant – suicide on mlk day in 1990 – http://www.chicagoreader.com/chicago/the-last-hours-of-william-oneal/Content?oid=875101): record.. simple.. had stolen car and speeding.. had potential case against me.. looking for opp to work it off..
beverly: fbi wanted to destroy the panthers.. absolutely saw them as the vanguard of a very threatening/violent revolutionary movement..
ronald freeman (http://www.jasmyneacannick.com/blog/roland-freeman-original-l-a-black-panther-dies-at-68/): fbi was coming around my mother in law.. my wife.. to stop that kind of activity.. i stopped going home.. and a lot of other people did too to protect their families.. you could say we abandoned our families.. for the panthers..
33 min – jamal: panther pads.. realized.. we have to live together to protect each other.. and have to live committed to this cause/movement
ora williams (http://fourthreefilm.com/2015/09/the-black-panthers-vanguard-of-the-revolution/): i was in labor.. fixing breakfast
36 min – clayborne: one of ironies.. image of male with gun.. when majority of rank and file are women…
all the people don’t have power.. that means none of us do
elaine: we tried to change some of the clear gender roles.. so that women had guns and men cooked breakfast for children.. did we overcome it.. of course we didn’t.. we didn’t get these bros from revolutionary heaven..
omar barbour (http://exchange2016.fpujournalism.org/2016/02/black-panther-guest-omar-barbour-makes-appearance-at-the-pub/): the paper was the lifeblood of the party.. that’s how we survived..
william: party paper went places party members would never get to go to.. reaching people we would never see.. we’d do everything assembly line style.. and just start singing.. aint no mountain high enough.. changing lyrics just a bit to what we were doing
rita (?): in the paper.. everything came together.. 10 pt platform.. explained who we were.. what we were about.. what our goals were
39 min – felipe: for me one reason to read paper was to see emory’s paintings.. his caricatures.. literally gave us the story
emory: to respond to artwork.. because it was a reflection of them.. they could see their brother/aunt.. ie: that teardrop symbolized that pain that i observed.. even thru pain.. strength/determination.. tried to put that into the artwork itself..
40 min – felipe: emory was our social realism.. he gave us courage… and most of all beauty.. that is what i loved about emory
41 min – emory: it was huey and bobby’s idea to draw a pig.. that would symbolize..the police
ron mccarthy (lapd): that rhetoric didn’t bother us when it was spoken by the panthers.. but when it was picked up by college students.. them saying it.. that definitely bothered us
pat mckinley (lapd): i was a sargeant patrolling in the projects.. and there was a cute little girl.. and i stopped to say.. hi honey how are you doing and she said.. f you pick.. and i thought.. we have lost it man.. we have flat lost it
howard saffold (chicago police): anybody that criticized the police..esp that didn’t have fear of poverty (?)..made em resign (?).. it was us against them.. that was the theme..
43 min – clayborne: that tendency to keep escalating the rhetoric.. that was a major part of the growth of the party.. but it was also a destructive force because you were always upping the auntie..
(?): it brought all the repression down on them before they were prepared to handle it
44 min – king slain.. april 4 1968
kathleen: effect of mlk death for panthers is overwhelming.. in the sense that once king was assassinated.. and the way he was assassinated.. so publicly.. it shattered so many people..
william: they’d killed the last chance to be peaceful with that.. the last chance for negotiation.. they killed a man who walked thru hell to try to get along with you.. and you kill him..? that was our champion.. you killed whatever hope i had in you… and i have no more use for you… none..
45 min – kathleen: i believe there was a decision made that some response on behalf of black panther party has to be made for what happened to king
donna: eldridge cleaver was worried that if the panthers didn’t take decisive action that they would cease to be the vanguard.. so he had this idea of actually actively attacking the police.. he approaches members of party..in oakland.. and all of the older people refuse to participate.. they knew that this would be suicide.. but the youngest member of the party.. little bobby hutton.. decides to follow eldridge into battle
46 min – elbert: little bobby called me.. big man.. i need a weapon.. i gave him what i had and told him.. be careful.. watch yourself..
fire in place hiding.. would have to die or surrender.. eldridge tells bobby to take off all clothes so can see not concealing a weapon.. but bobby was embarrassed.. so just took off shirt.
bobby came out with hands in air.. first member.. and was gunned down..
47 min – elbert: my heart sank.. he was only 17.. and one of first to get killed in the party.. i felt i got my bro killed.. what if i hadn’t given him the weapon.. some of the demons in my closet..
marlon brando speaks.. that could have been my son lying there.. and i’m going to do as much as i can.. to inform white people of what they don’t know
48 min – kathleen: for bpp it was crisis and chaos.. because this was the first.. bp murder..
huey: we want non violence.. just like mlk.. but nonviolence on part of who..? to sit and watch ourselves be slaughtered.. like our brother.. we must defend ourselves.. malcolm x said.. by any means necessary..
49 min – eldridge fleas country.. to algeria
mark: on acceptance in algeria.. n vietnamese gave them their old embassy… et al
yohuru williams (@yohuruwilliams): eldridge’s establishing international wing.. malcolm and others talked about forging those types of alliances.. black panthers finally did it..
kathleen: at that time americans being opposed vehemently because of nam.. so here we are black americans.. opposed to all of this.. we’re the counter to the us ..we were able to connect w/n koreans.. vietnamese.. chinese.. and also with many african liberation movements .. and many people came to see us there..
51 min – beverly: i think what draws these groups together is a lot of anti american sentiment.. if you want americas fearing.. revolutionary new world is on its way.. black panthers are certainly someone you are going to support
eldridge: we will aid others as we aid ourselves..
52 min – david hilliard (bp chief of staff) on ask the nation.. when aksed if he’d talkd to eldridge.. he said.. you know i do.. you tap us.. from the white house..
jeffrey og ogbar (@rofogbar): the leadership of the party… national leadership sits with david hilliard.. bobby seale is in a prison.. huey newton is in jail.. and eldridge in algeria
flores forbes (https://www.democracynow.org/2006/11/22/will_you_die_with_me_my): david was someone who was considered a.. sound store keeper.. he kept the shop in order
david: nixon is the chief spokesman of the american people.. and if the man is not responsible for the people in govt like the fbi agencies and the local police.. then he should stand up and let the american people know that he do not endorse the kind of campaigns that been waged against black people in this world..
53 min – william: jan 1969 nixon is elected w a sense of a mandate to crack down.. and he feels that it is his personal charge after the 68 election.. to repress
nixon: this is a nation of laws.. as abe lincoln has said.. no one is above/below the law and we’re going to enforce the law.. and americans need to remember that if we are going to have law and order
william: nixon admin used hoover even more.. of a sense.. that he can repress w/o restriction
54 min – hoover: answer is increase law enforcement.. justice is merely an incidental to law and order
fbi director j edgar hoover today asserted that the black panthers rep the greatest internal threat to the nation
clayborne: when hoover announced bpp as #1 threat to us at a time when they’re fighting in nam.. of course that was crazy.. but it was politically very effective.. and it says to law enforcement at the local level.. we can take the gloves off now.. we don’t have to respect the civil liberties.. we can go after them w/everything we’ve got
ronald: one of executive orders at bpp.. we were to defend ourselves..from unwarranted attacks .. don’t allow police to just forcibly come in
ron (lapd): the panthers were a criminal org.. were violent.. and they wanted to kill cops.. that’s all i needed to know
pat (lapd): they were trying to change govt as we know it to terrorist activity
ron (?): we took a very active stance in combatting what we considered a terrorist org
m wesley (fbi): i think the fbi manipulated the police.. the fbi arranged for the bp to get guns thru informants.. they would convince the police that the panthers had weapons.. they had to be ready to go in and be shot at .. so the police went in and shot at them first
56 min – (mohammed): we hear about rage taking place against bp officers.. they were coming to kill us..
kathleen: it was obvious that the govt had made a decision that this was all out attack on the bpp.. raided.. shot.. mass arrests.. for bpp it was a crisis situation.. because we didn’t have the resources
57 min – jamal: in other cities.. the panthers.. were physical attacks from police depts.. but nyc was going to handle its panther problem differently.. they created a conspiracy case that allowed them to arrest the entire leadership of the nyc bpp
on april 2 1969.. arresting
58 min – and so the panther 21 started..
jamal: badge of honor to get arrested.. wow.. i’m a panther now… i began to accept fact i would spend rest of life in prison…
gerald lefcourt (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerald_B._Lefcourt) (defense lawyer for panthers): this group.. 21 people.. leadership …all tied up in court.. with bails none of them could make… i told jury that maybe police started the party
fundraisers at jane fonda’s house
1:01 – found them.. not guilty…
gerald: 156 not guilty verdicts.. astonishing.. the court room erupted.. the city erupted.. people dancing in the streets
1:02 – most of defendants had been in jail for 2 yrs.. unable to pay the high bail sentence..
gerald: they said.. you must allow people to get together and think about life and the way they live.. and about change.. a beautiful victory
beverly: even with acquittals.. many smaller ones trials pop up all over.. this really consumes most of the party’s energy
1:03 – gerald: people were afraid to join.. they knew it was infiltrated.. that they would be watched immediately.. no one wants to go near an org that is so hot..
tom hayden (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom_Hayden): i was part of planning a demonstration against nam in 68.. i org’d a rally and had bobby seale speak.. he was later arrested for that speach
1:04 jeff: bobby asked to have trial postponed till his lawyer could come to chicago.. judge refused.. so bobby said.. i’ll rep myself.. but then ends up yelling at judge…
mike gray (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mike_Gray): judge taped his mouth.. tied him to chair.. couldn’t have been more definitive if would have put sign over his head: slave…
tom: but it turned out.. bobby could make noise.. saying things thru the gag
1:06 – mike: most amazing phenom…outside fed courtroom.. a plaza.. right in the heart of town.. kids were coming down from courtroom with fire in their eyes having just seen that madness up there.. and all of a sudden one day.. this black orator.. who at that time was 20 yrs old.. starts talking to these people.. and all of a sudden.. it’s like a magnet: fred hampton:
you can jail revolutionaries.. but you can’t jail a revolution
you may murder a freedom fighter like bobby hutton.. but you can’t murder freedom
1:07 – michael: whatever it was.. fred had it.. whenever he got up in front of a group of people.. the words just flow… you were awash in the words.. it was like that.. i don’t care how many people are there.. it was like he was talking to you.. that’s a dangerous person.. he wasn’t above us.. he was one of us..
dennis cunningham (http://www.benrosenfeldlaw.com/about/dennis-cunningham-attorney/): by time 17 was head of naacp youth branch.. already experienced by time illionois ch of panther party formed.. so natural choice to lead it
jeff: fred spoke in people’s church in august 1969.. and i was in the crowd.. toward end of speech he said: everybody stand up and raise right hand… everyone saying.. i am a revolutionary..
mike klonsky (@mikeklonsky) (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Klonsky): a lot of us thought we were on the eve of a revolution.. we called the bpp the vanguard.. because they were out ahead… they were sacrificing their lives in the struggle.. fred.. here in chicago.. was the main voice for unity..
1:10 – (?): we worked with such orgs as.. the young lords.. and the young patriots… he was telling why they should work together..’poverty.. the first thing we can unite on..the common thing we have’
1:11 – landon: was latinos, poor whites, poor blacks.. but also since w naacp.. had folks who were in congregations.. and working class folks.. so fred was building a broad based coalition in chicago.. and that was the threat
mike klonksy: hoover most feared young whites uniting with the black struggle.. and he was most afraid of .. a black messiah rising..up out of this movement
fred could spot talent.. but one thing he failed to spot.. the fbi plant.. who was his personal body guard
william (informant): june 1969.. i started supplying info
1:12 – dec 3 1969 rally at people’s church west side of chicago.. where fred gave one of those speeches
1:13 – deborah: 12 midnight.. william brings me back to our apt.. fred had been running 24/7.. so he fell asleep.. i was 8.5 months pregnant with our son.. so .. i fell asleep too.. in apt.. we received no warning.. no tear gas.. nothing to offer us to surrender (police version is that they shot at police 14 ish times)
blair anderson (https://sites.google.com/site/cointelprodocs/search-and-destroy/introduction-the-chicago-incident-on-december-4-1969): bullets start coming thru the walls… plaster flying… cop stepped thru door with submachine gun
1:16 – (?): police make historic blunder of leaving apt open.. so right away people go
(?): i stepped into living room.. and there was fred’s blood flowing all the way from very back of the house..
mike: when we lifted up mattress.. machine gun thugs fell out of mattress.. only one shot with panther weapon.. ceiling.. shot off when gun dropped after panther himself was hit
renault robinson (chicago police – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Renault_Robinson): this was a shoot in.. wasn’t a shoot out
howard saffold (chicago police – http://www.thehistorymakers.com/biography/howard-saffold-39): all indications to me… obviously a political assassination
1:18 – on cops laughing as they explain what happened..
1:19 – it was a death squad.. a police death squad .. and the whole thing was sets up by the fbi
1:20 – mohammed: we knew something was about to happen (4 days later in la).. putting sand bags all around..
wayne: we were actually trying to build a tunnel to the sewer line
gil parker (http://www.adweek.com/fishbowlny/swat-vs-the-black-panthers-in-the-la-times-magazine/135227): there was more a police presence.. stopped more.. arrested more..
pat: i think they found out.. a diff climate for them .. we’d stop/search/shake them.. we were the dominating force
ron: special weapons et al.. formed in 1966.. the original swat.. was the lapd swat team..this was first time swat team was activated to serve a high risk warrant
bob smitson (lapd): it was decided a swat warrant would be utilized and surprise would be the element we used
1:22 – pat: very close friend was working intelligence and he told .. they are fighters/shooters.. don’t be at the door
1:26 – i was a free negro.. making my own rules.. you couldn’t get in.. i couldn’t get out.. but in that little space i had.. i was the key..
1:28 – when they raided us.. all our key players were locked up
1:29 – new trial for huey
tarika: everything could explode.. huey freed
donna: he’d become an image not a man.. gave him power that proved dangerous… he came out.. going on free programs..
1:32 – edlridge: not happy with just breakfast for children program – bpp is for overthrowing us govt
kathleen: those on other side.. didn’t see bpp as vehicle for social service.. we saw it as vehicle for political/radical change.. revolution…so .. we couldn’t get excited about survival
eldridge denounces party.. and david hilliard.. which was not endearing us to the community
1:33 – 21 kicked out.. eldridge upset.. 2 camps.. eldridge vs huey
1:38 – clayborne – leaders not worthy of followers..
shooting between panthers..
beverly: this is what cointellpro was really all about..
1:42 – bobby seale for mayor.. in end wasn’t enough
1:44 – no plan b.. once lost campaign.. a void
1:45 – ericka: huey.. taking over underground.. bringing in revenue.. more and more addicted to substances.. less and less huey.. and more and more listening to his demons… started abusing people
1:50 – jamal: what remains true: an undying love for the people
over 20 panthers that still remain in prison..
The Black Panther Party or BPP (originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was a revolutionary black nationalist and socialist organization active in the United States from 1966 until 1982, with its only international chapter operating in Algeria from 1969 until 1972.
At its inception on October 15, 1966, the Black Panther Party’s core practice was its armed citizens’ patrols to monitor the behavior of police officers and challenge police brutality in Oakland, California. In 1969, community social programs became a core activity of party members. The Black Panther Party instituted a variety of community social programs, most extensively the Free Breakfast for Children Programs, and community health clinics.
Federal Bureau of Investigation Director J. Edgar Hoover called the party “the greatest threat to the internal security of the country”, and he supervised an extensive program (COINTELPRO) of surveillance, infiltration, perjury, police harassment, and many other tactics designed to undermine Panther leadership, incriminate party members, discredit and criminalize the Party, and drain the organization of resources and manpower. The program was also accused of assassinating Black Panther members.
Government oppression initially contributed to the growth of the party as killings and arrests of Panthers increased support for the party within the black community and on the broad political left, both of whom valued the Panthers as a powerful force opposed to de facto segregation and the military draft. Black Panther Party membership reached a peak in 1970, with offices in 68 cities and thousands of members, then suffered a series of contractions. After being vilified by the mainstream press, public support for the party waned, and the group became more isolated. In-fighting among Party leadership, caused largely by the FBI’s COINTELPRO operation, led to expulsions and defections that decimated the membership.
from thought maybe site:
34. cointelpro – 16 min – at hieght of klan – 1 in 5 were fbi; 17 min – hover: blacks were threat to social order; 22 min riot; 47 min – tolerate injustice in order to maintain social order
Popular support for the Party declined further after reports appeared detailing the group’s involvement in illegal activities such as drug dealing and extortion schemes directed against Oakland merchants. By 1972 most Panther activity centered on the national headquarters and a school in Oakland, where the party continued to influence local politics. Party contractions continued throughout the 1970s. By 1980 the Black Panther Party had just 27 members.
The history of the Black Panther Party is controversial. Scholars have characterized the Black Panther Party as the most influential black movement organization of the late 1960s, and “the strongest link between the domestic Black Liberation Struggle and global opponents of American imperialism”. Other commentators have described the Party as more criminal than political, characterized by “defiant posturing over substance”
If you want to understand the full impact of racism in America, look how hard they beat down dissenters from the Black Panthers. Look at it.
A black man spent 44 years in solitary for a murder he didn’t commit. Now he’s speaking out independent.co.uk/news/world/ame…
The men were serving prison sentences on other charges in the early Seventies at former slave plantation Angola prison in Louisiana. As active members of the Black Panther movement, they had organised petitions and hunger strikes to protest racial segregation, violence and mistreatment of black prisoners. They say their activism led them to be seen as “trouble makers” by prison staff and sparked a racist campaign to see them charged with the murder of a prison guard they did not commit.
Woodfox continued to protest his innocence and fight his case and in 2014, judges upheld unanimously that his conviction had been secured as a result of racial discrimination. He eventually entered a plea on a lesser charge and was finally released in February of this year. For 43 years he lived in a 6ft x 9ft cell largely without human contact or communication, waiting for justice.
how albert woodfox survived solitary (2017) –
As one of the Angola 3, he was in isolation longer than any other American. Then he came home to face his future.
Last summer, five months after being released from prison, Albert Woodfox went to Harlem. It was there, in 1969, during his last week of freedom, that he met members of the Black Panther Party for the first time. He had been mesmerized by the way they talked and moved. “I had always sensed, even among the most confident black people, that their fear was right there at the top, ready to overwhelm them,” he told me. “It was the first time I’d ever seen black folk who were not afraid.”
Woodfox had intended to go to a meeting of the New York chapter of the Party that week, but he was arrested for a robbery before he could. Instead, he founded a chapter of the Party at the Louisiana State Penitentiary, in Angola, where he was held in solitary confinement for more than forty years—longer than any prisoner in American history. He and two other Black Panthers, who were in solitary confinement for a total of more than a hundred years, became known as the Angola 3.
She was so scared of white folks,” he said. “We all knew they had absolute power over us.”
“They thought they were separating us, but everywhere we went that infectious disease called organizing was taking hold
J. Edgar Hoover called the group “the greatest threat to the internal security of the country,” and, as part of his cointelpro program, ordered the F.B.I. to disrupt and discredit its activities. But much of the Party’s work was focussed on providing community services in neighborhoods that had been neglected by the government.
Angola was known as the most dangerous prison in the South. According to the editor of the prison’s newspaper, the Angolite, a quarter of the inmates lived in “bondage”: raped, sold, and traded, they generated income for their owners as well as for prison guards, who were paid to look the other way. The Panthers organized an Anti-Rape Squad, which escorted new prisoners to their dorms. “We would let them know who we were and that we were there to protect them,”
They claimed that responsibility for their actions belonged not to them but to society, which had failed to provide adequate housing, equal educational opportunities, and equal opportunities in American life.”
“If I feel a habit is developing, or even a disorder of any kind, I counsel myself in spirit,” Wallace told a psychologist. “The more food you eat, the more your body craves food,” he wrote to a friend. “It’s the same for sleep—most of it is mental.”
“We wanted the security people to think that they were dealing with superhumans.” It was also a coping strategy. “Before I let them take something from me, I deny it from myself,” he said.
not even adding here.. the injustice of the judges/trials..
or three years, he slept sitting up, because he felt less panicked when he was vertical. “It takes so much out of you just to try to make these walls, you know, go back to the normal place they belong,” he told a psychologist. “Someday I’m not going to be able to deal with it. I’m not going to be able to pull those walls apart.”
Three months later, she sent a letter to a judge who had presided over previous hearings. “I have made a terrible mistake,” she wrote. She also wrote to the judge who had overseen her grand jury, telling him that after researching the case she understood that crucial facts had been withheld from her. “I feel violated and taken advantage of,” she said. In another letter, she begged Buddy Caldwell to stop the prosecution. When she received no replies, she mailed a letter to the governor, Bobby Jindal, whom she had voted for. “This is the worst human tragedy I have ever seen,” she wrote
He found it a “strain to stay within the social dialogue,” he said. He often warned new acquaintances, “I’m not good at, as they say, ‘chitchat.’ ”
He had a workmanlike approach to socializing. He didn’t drink, and he never seemed to judge people. The most skeptical thing I’d ever heard him say was that someone was “quirky.” He had a hard time saying no to anyone.
He said that, in the early two-thousands, inmates at Angola began telling him, “Thanks for not letting them break you.” It was the first time he grasped that, by staying sane, he had done something unusual.
“From the Party I learned that I had worth as a human being,” he said. “How do you explain something that’s in your heart and your mind and your soul?”