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ran (Persian: ایران‎ Irān[ʔiːˈɾɒːn], also known as Persia (/ˈpɜːrʒə/), officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (Persian: جمهوری اسلامی ایران‎ Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With about 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world’s 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world.



Iran is home to one of the world’s oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BC.


Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century AD, ultimately leading to the displacementof the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turksand the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, which followed the country’s conversion to Shia Islam, marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. By the 18th century, under Nader Shah, Iran briefly possessed what was arguably the most powerful empire at the time. The 19th-century conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest culminated in the Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a constitutional monarchy and the country’s first legislature. Following a coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States in 1953, Iran gradually became closely aligned with the West, and grew increasingly autocratic. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution, which followed the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system which includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic “Supreme Leader”. During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and financial loss for both sides.

According to international observers, the current Iranian regime (led by Ali Khamenei since 1989) is oppressive, with human rights abuses commonplace. Since the 2000s, Iran’s controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on July 14, 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran’s restriction in producing enriched uranium.

Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world’s largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy.

The country’s rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).


adding page because of protests in 2017

Pavel Durov (@durov) tweeted at 5:17 AM – 31 Dec 2017 :

Iranian authorities are blocking access to Telegram for the majority of Iranians after our public refusal to shut down and other peacefully protesting channels. (

Nima Akbarpour نیما (@nima) tweeted at 5:08 AM – 31 Dec 2017 :

Many Iranian users are having difficulty in access to @Telegram and @Instagram at the moment.
There are many reports about difficulty in internet access on smartphones.
It seems like internet speed droped and mobile operators stoped providing the internet service.
#IranProtests (

Democracy Now! (@democracynow) tweeted at 6:33 AM – 2 Jan 2018 :

.@TheIntercept’s @ggreenwald: “When it comes to analyzing what’s exactly driving the protests in Iran, we ought to defer to Iranians… and avoid overnight experts who tend to pop up in the West” #DNlive (

Democracy Now! (@democracynow) tweeted at 6:34 AM – 2 Jan 2018 :

“Human rights is not actually something the U.S. government believes in,” says @ggreenwald. “They use denunciations of human rights abuses to undermine and weaken governments that are contrary to their agenda, like in Iran” #DNlive (

Asad/أسد/אריה (@DandiaAsad) tweeted at 3:38 PM – 1 Jan 2018 :

I say this often but it must constantly be emphasized: If your politics are people-centric (as opposed to state-centric), you will never struggle with how to show solidarity and to whom you should owe it.

Apply consistently across: Palestine, Syria, Iran, etc. (

and.. soccer coach..


Daniel Wickham (@DanielWickham93) tweeted at 5:41 AM – 5 Jan 2018 :

Interesting to see several prominent hardline clerics who vehemently opposed 2009 protests now taking quite a different line re unrest in Iran i.e. recognising econ grievances. Seems in line with the theory that these protests were stirred up by conservative opponents of Rouhani. (


rt by joey ayoub

mahsa alimardani (@maasalan) tweeted at 6:49 AM – 6 Jan 2018 :

So many passages in @nargesbajoghli’s ‘Behind the Iran Protests’ that are well researched, reported and written I want to highlight, but this one in particular resounds w/ lots of conversations I’ve been having&hearing about 2009 & Syria/foreign influence (

We’re tired of waiting for the situation to get better. It’s not getting better.”

on hold ness

Murtaza Mohammad Hussain (@MazMHussain) tweeted at 7:10 AM – 6 Jan 2018 :

“Working people in Iran have been dreaming of a better life for four decades, but today ordinary people often have to work two or three jobs simply to survive.” (

Recent unrests in Iran were neither entirely about inequality, nor fully about democracy. They were more about one thing: Succession to the Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei.
#Iran #IranProtests

Original Tweet:


The New York Times (@nytimes) tweeted at 5:45 AM – 8 Jan 2018 :

Iran has banned the teaching of English in primary schools to block Western “cultural invasion”

Borzou Daragahi  (@borzou) tweeted at 10:03 PM – 7 Jan 2018 :

If you know anything about Iran, you’ll know that now tons of parents are going to start zealously teaching their kids English, just to defy the regime (


World Economic Forum (@wef) tweeted at 7:03 AM – 11 Jan 2018 :

Why we need to pay attention to Iran’s protests #Iran (


Hossein Derakhshan (@h0d3r) tweeted at 6:38 AM – 12 Jan 2018 :

This was a serious warning to rulers of #Iran. They either open up to demands for basic freedoms, or they will soon see a massive uprising by urban middle-class. I said to @AJStream on #IranProtests. 4/4 (


Hossein Derakhshan (@h0d3r) tweeted at 6:38 AM – 12 Jan 2018 :

This was a serious warning to rulers of #Iran. They either open up to demands for basic freedoms, or they will soon see a massive uprising by urban middle-class. I said to @AJStream on #IranProtests. 4/4 (

Hossein Derakhshan (@h0d3r) tweeted at 8:55 PM – 28 Dec 2017 :

I wrote that unless the regime returns to the level of freedoms which existed in the first couple of years after 1979 revolution, its collapse will inevitablty come soon. (