18 min – notre dame study: conditions for child development that h g societies provided for children.. which are the are optimal conditions for development.. and no longer present for kids..t
19 min – notre dame study 2010: healthiest environ for child rearing is the hunter gatherer society/village.. why.. because in hg village 3 things happen to kids that don’t happen in our culture:
1\ kids always with the parent.. well that’s not possible in this country.. when puritans arrived in america they were appalled at the parenting practices of the natives.. because the natives didn’t beat their kids.. to the christians this meant.. sparing the rod spoiling the child
2\ when kids cried they were picked up.. we’re telling people.. at 5-6 months.. don’t pick them up.. you want them to become independent..we’re missing the point that they way to promote independence is to *invite the dependence.. people can feel independent when they feel secure in the world.. promote independence by inviting dependence.. so aboriginals picked up kids when crying which meant.. brains not overwhelmed by stress hormones.. when a child’s brain is overwhelmed by stress hormones because he’s not picked up.. that has all kinds of impacts on the child’s brain development.. because brain develops in interaction with the environment..
notre dame hg law
20 min – so even if we don’t abuse kids in this country.. but if you just follow the parenting practices recommended by the so called experts.. you’re going to screw up your kids tremendously..
3\ children are brought up in context of nurturing adults.. not just the parents.. clan/community/neighborhood
so any system that destroys those conditions.. that stresses the parents..
notre dame study led by Darcia Narvaez
Three new studies led by Notre Dame Psychology Professor Darcia Narvaez show a relationship between child rearing practices common in foraging hunter-gatherer societies (how we humans have spent about 99 percent of our history) and better mental health, greater empathy and conscience development, and higher intelligence in children.
“The way we raise our children today in this country is increasingly depriving them of the practices that lead to well being and a moral sense,” she says.
Narvaez identifies six characteristics of child rearing that were common to our distant ancestors:
- Lots of positive touch – as in no spanking – but nearly constant carrying, cuddling and holding;
- Prompt response to baby’s fusses and cries. You can’t “spoil” a baby. This means meeting a child’s needs before they get upset and the brain is flooded with toxic chemicals. “Warm, responsive caregiving like this keeps the infant’s brain calm in the years it is forming its personality and response to the world,” Narvaez says.
- Breastfeeding, ideally 2 to 5 years. A child’s immune system isn’t fully formed until age 6 and breast milk provides its building blocks.
- Multiple adult caregivers – people beyond mom and dad who also love the child.
- Free play with multi-age playmates. Studies show that kids who don’t play enough are more likely to have ADHD and other mental health issues.
- Natural childbirth, which provides mothers with the hormone boosts that give the energy to care for a newborn.
via James Suzman
@monk51295 @DrMate bit dated but you will probably find this interesting @monk51295 https://t.co/1tmXqlXAlb
Original Tweet: https://twitter.com/anthrowittering/status/939208546201292800
in response to
‘notre dame study: conditions for child development that hunter gatherer societies provided for children..which are the are optimal conditions for development..& no longer present for kids’ @
by Melvin Konner [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melvin_Konner] 2004
hunter-gatherer childhood (HGC) model.
the intensity of the mother-infant relationship among the !Kung and some other hunter-gatherers was viewed as supporting John Bowlby’s model of the role of attachment in infancy
At the same time, new theory in life history evolution strongly suggested that hunter-gatherer childhood should not follow a single pattern but should adjust itself to widely varying ecological conditions
infant and child care should be facultative, not obligatory, adaptations
Infanticide at or near the time of birth has long been known as a choice sometimes exercised by mothers in traditional societies, including hunter-gatherers.
Overall Indulgence. Ethnographers had described the !Kung as exceptionally indulgent in infant and [STET]. Cross-cultural comparison con- firmed this; punishment, especially physical punishment, was rare in infancy and early childhood and uncommon in later childhood. Parents were described as generous and undemanding in almost all aspects of child life and behavior. One aspect of !Kung indulgence, responsiveness to crying, has been carefully studied. Early papers emphasized the prompt and reliable response to crying in !Kung infants
The first paper (Konner 1972), in a section titled “The Milieu of Development in the First Year,” said of !Kung infants,
From their position on the mother’s hip they have available to them her entire social world….When the mother is standing, the infant’s face is just at the eye-level of desperately maternal 10-to-12-year-old girls who frequently approach and initiate brief, intense, face-to-face interactions,
including mutual smiling and vocalization. When not in the sling they are passed from hand to hand around a fire for similar interactions with one adult or child after another. They are kissed on their faces, bellies, genitals, sung to, bounced, entertained, encouraged, even addressed at length in conversational tones long before they can understand words. Throughout the first year there is rarely any dearth of such attention and love. (p. 292)
The dense social context, by providing ample alternative stimulation for both mothers and infants, improves the likelihood that mothers will accept the dependent demands of infants. Paradoxically, this results in decreased proximity seeking and other dependent demands at later ages.
Hunter-gatherers have frequent nursing, mother-infant cosleeping, high physical contact, high overall indulgence (possibly excepting the Hadza), substantial to high nonmaternal care and father involvement, maternal primacy, transition to a multiage child group, a relatively carefree childhood (except the Hadza), low restriction of premarital sex, and strong adolescent initiation rites. Only the Aka match the !Kung in age at weaning and interbirth interval, but the other three cultures have weaning ages over two years and interbirth intervals over three years. This is at the upper end of the range for preindustrial cultures and sustains the generalization that hunter-gatherers have relatively late weaning and long birth spacing.
One of the most contested claims that came out of the !Kung literature has been the argument that hunter-gatherer maternal care supports the Bowlby approach to the development of attachment, which includes a hypothesis of monotropy-attachment behaviors focused on a single caregiver (Belsky 1999; Bowlby 1970–1980; Bretherton 1992; Sroufe et al. 1999; Sroufe and Waters 1977). Both the Efe and Aka studies have been cited as undermining this claim, but the challenge is now easily met. First, the claim of maternal primacy in the !Kung literature was never as strong as it was made out to be. Second, to the (substantial) extent that maternal primacy was emphasized, there is little in the new hunter-gatherer infancy research to undermine it.
The Hadza comprise the greatest challenge to the model. They not only have earlier weaning than the !Kung, as do the Ache, but they were reported have significantly lower indulgence in infancy. Recently, however, more detailed studies of parent-infant interaction have suggested that this difference too has been overemphasized
Hunter-gatherer childhood was characterized by close physical contact, maternal primacy in a dense social context, indulgent and responsive infant care, frequent nursing, weaning between two and four years of age, high overall indulgence, multiaged child groups, variable responsibility in childhood, and relatively weak control of adolescent sexuality. These appear to be durable features of the model. Departures from them since the end of the hunting-gathering era constitute a discordance and may have psychological and biological consequences that merit further study.
via Peter Gray: evidence of children ed themselves.. #2 is hg child