Violence is defined by the World Health Organization as “the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, which either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation,” although the group acknowledges that the inclusion of “the use of power” in its definition expands on the conventional understanding of the word.
Globally, violence resulted in the deaths of an estimated 1.28 million people in 2013 up from 1.13 million in 1990. Of the deaths in 2013, roughly 842,000 were attributed to self-harm (suicide), 405,000 to interpersonal violence, and 31,000 to collective violence (war) and legal intervention. In Africa, out of every 100,000 people, each year an estimated 60.9 die a violent death. For each single death due to violence, there are dozens of hospitalizations, hundreds of emergency department visits, and thousands of doctors’ appointments. Furthermore, violence often has lifelong consequences for physical and mental health and social functioning and can slow economic and social development.
In 2013, assault by firearm was the leading cause of death due to interpersonal violence, with 180,000 such deaths estimated to have occurred. The same year, assault by sharp object resulted in roughly 114,000 deaths, with a remaining 110,000 deaths from personal violence being attributed to other causes.
Violence in many forms can be preventable. There is a strong relationship between levels of violence and modifiable factors in a country such as concentrated (regional) poverty, income and gender inequality, the harmful use of alcohol, and the absence of safe, stable, and nurturing relationships between children and parents. Strategies addressing the underlying causes of violence can be relatively effective in preventing violence, although mental and physical health and individual responses, personalities, etc. have always been decisive factors in the formation of these behaviors.
Collective violence is subdivided into structural violence and economic violence.
adding page this day:
Indy Johar (@indy_johar) tweeted at 6:03 AM – 20 Jan 2019 :
Just without the visible bloodshed – the 21st century art of violence is molecular, process & system orientated https://t.co/QWeaAxyeRh (http://twitter.com/indy_johar/status/1086972367723737088?s=17)
Mencius said to King Hui, “Is there any difference between killing a man with a sword, and doing it with a style of government?” (Mn. 1A.4)
WhiteHawkSpeaks (@WhiteHawkSpeaks) tweeted at 2:57 PM on Wed, Feb 13, 2019:
“David Graeber on capitalism’s best kept secret” by @PhilonomistEN https://t.co/Y5PzCpnRTz
If people suffer from having bullshit jobs, why aren’t they going for more useful jobs?
They can’t. There is an inverse relationship between the amount of money you’re going to get for a job, and how much it actually helps people.
It’s the ultimate form of violence: only rich people can afford to do meaningful work!
from ‘s behave:
this is a central point of his book – we don’t hate violence.
we hate and fear the wrong kind of violence, violence in the wrong context. because violence in the right context is different.
via maria.. https://www.brainpickings.org/2015/08/20/amin-maalouf-identity/
But the strange psychology undergirding our morphing sense of belonging is also the root of the destructive impulses that Tolstoy and Gandhi contemplated in exploring why we hurt each other.
All violence requires an Other as its target, and the shifting boundaries of our own identity are what contours that otherness.
We each live with what pioneering psychologist Jerome Bruner called an “internal clamor of identities,” out of which spring both the bonds of belonging and the violence of difference, inflicted upon those whom we perceive as a threat to any one of our multiple identities of gender, race, religion, nationality, class, political affiliation, favorite sports team, and so forth.
These fascinating, shape-shifting complexities of personhood are what Lebanese-born French writer Amin Maalouf explores in the superb 1996 book In the Name of Identity: Violence and the Need to Belong .. What emerges is a reminder that only by acknowledging the multiplicity of our identity can we begin to simultaneously own our uniqueness and fully inhabit our ties to our fellow human beings.
Echoing Margaret Mead’s assertion that “we’ve started to worry about identity since people began losing it,” Maalouf writes:
People often see themselves in terms of whichever one of their allegiances is most under attack. .. In the midst of any community that has been wounded agitators naturally arise… The scene is now set and the war can begin. Whatever happens “the others” will have deserved it…What we conveniently call “murderous folly” is the propensity of our fellow-creatures to turn into butchers when they suspect that their “tribe” is being threatened. The emotions of fear or insecurity don’t always obey rational considerations. They may be exaggerated or even paranoid; but once a whole population is afraid, we are dealing with the reality of the fear rather than the reality of the t