Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye [ˈtyɾcije]), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti (help·info); pronounced [ˈtyɾcije d͡ʒumˈhuɾijeti]), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly on the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, parliamentary republic with a diverse cultural heritage.
Turkey is bordered by eight countries: Greece to the west; Bulgaria to the northwest; Georgia to the northeast; Armenia, the Azerbaijaniexclave of Nakhchivan and Iran to the east; and Iraq and Syria to the south. The Aegean Sea is to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, which together form the Turkish Straits, divide Thrace and Anatolia; they also separate Europe and Asia.Turkey’s location between Europe and Asia has retained its geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey has been inhabited since the Paleolithic by various ancient Anatolian civilisations, as well as Assyrians, Greeks, Thracians, Phrygians, Urartians and Armenians. After Alexander the Great’s conquest, the area was Hellenized, a process which continued under the Roman Empire and its transition into the Byzantine Empire. The Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, starting the process of Turkification, which was accelerated by the Seljuk victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish beyliks.
In the mid-14th century the Ottomans started uniting Anatolia and created an empire encompassing much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia and North Africa, becoming a major power in Eurasia and Africa during the early modern period. The empire reached the peak of its power in the 16th century, especially during the reign (1520–1566) of Suleiman the Magnificent. The empire remained powerful and influential for two more centuries, until important setbacks such as the Great Turkish War (1683–99) and the Russo-Turkish War (1768–74) forced it to cede strategic territories in Europe, signalling the loss of its former military strength and wealth. The Tanzimat reforms of the 19th century, which aimed to modernise the Ottoman state, proved to be inadequate in most fields, and failed to stop the dissolution of the empire.
Suspended by Sultan Abdülhamid II in 1878, the Ottoman constitution and parliament were restored with the Young Turk Revolution on 24 July 1908. Taking advantage of the chaos, Bulgaria formally declared its independence on 5 October 1908, and Austria-Hungary formally annexed Bosnia-Herzegovina on 6 October 1908. The Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912) encouraged the Balkan League to declare the Balkan Wars (1912–1913), which caused the Ottoman Empire to lose the majority of its remaining territories in Europe and triggered the largest ethnic cleansing of Turks in the Balkan peninsula since the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), resulting in the mass migrations of Turks to Anatolia. The disappointment in these losses led to the 1913 Ottoman coup d’état which effectively put the country under the control of the Three Pashas, who decided to join the Central Powers of World War I (1914–1918) which were ultimately defeated by the Allied Powers. During the war, the Ottoman government committed ethnic cleansing or genocide against its Armenian, Assyrian and Pontic Greekcitizens. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was divided into several new states.
The Turkish War of Independence (1919–1922), initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues in Anatolia against the occupying Allies, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the modern Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Turkey’s official language is Turkish, a Turkic language spoken natively by 84.5% of the population. According to polls, between 78.1% and 81.3% of the country’s citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks. Other ethnic groups include legally recognised (Armenians, Greeks, Jews) and unrecognised (Kurds, Circassians, Arabs, Albanians, Bosniaks, Georgians, etc.) minorities.Kurds are the largest ethnic minority group, making up approximately 13.4% to 18% or up to 25% of the population, based on polls and estimates. The vast majority of the population is nominally Sunni Muslim, with Alevis making up the largest religious minority.
Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, and a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, applied for full EEC membership in 1987, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005. Turkey’s growing economy and diplomatic initiatives have led to its recognition as a regional power
adding page this day via vinay rt:
This is one of the most important articles I’ve read this year:
It could happen – it is happening – here.
Original Tweet: https://twitter.com/PhilipPullman/status/810050827750473728
In Turkey we observe how even tragedy plays a role in manipulative government and post-truth repression. The terrorist outrage last week in central Istanbul, which left 38 dead and 166 wounded, was the 31st terror attack in the last year and a half. And it was the 31st time the country had followed exactly the same routine: shock, followed by a ban on news that was augmented by calls for national unity from official spokesmen, and then a statement from the president paving the way for social media trolls to target anyone who questions the government.
This week a young boy grieving at the funeral of his father, killed in the latest attack, was seen to look at President Erdoğan in a not-so-admiring way. Government supporters are now calling for an investigation into the entire family.
This refashioning of a post-truth, post-fact Turkey has not happened overnight. The process has involved the skilful and wilful manipulation of narratives. We gave up asking the astonished questions “How can they say or do that?” some time ago. Truth is a lost game in my country. In Europeand America, you still have time to rescue it – but you must learn from Turkey how easily it can be lost.
What is the practical effect of this new truth on everyday life? Well, consider one example. In Turkey today, we are obliged to indulge a debate about whether minors should be married to their rapists. It is predicated on the “real people’s” truth that in rural areas girls get married even when they are just 13, and thus have sexual maturity. It is, we are told, a thoroughly elitist argument to insist that a minor cannot give consent.
We have learned a lesson, but too late. The question “Are we out of touch?” leads to “them and us”, which then morphs into “either us or them”. As we found in Turkey, the masses choose “them”. From that point you find yourself, like me, labelled “not real people” in your own country. Europe and the US will soon learn that..
being “elite” is not about social class or education: it is about obedience to one version of the truth.
You have no idea about real people, he said, before offering us some gracious lessons on how he saw real journalism.
none of us do.. ie: sci of people… much deeper than discussing here.. but how it’s playing out..
day after this:
CNN (@CNN) tweeted at 5:21 AM – 20 Dec 2016 :
Photographer who captured images of Russian ambassador’s assassination describes the moment the gunman opened fire https://t.co/bDrcf3sGGI https://t.co/D1WEw6bf3M (http://twitter.com/CNN/status/811184630053347328?s=17)
“This is what I was thinking: ‘I’m here. Even if I get hit and injured, or killed, I’m a journalist. I have to do my work. I could run away without making any photos … But I wouldn’t have a proper answer if people later ask me: ‘Why didn’t you take pictures?'”
“When I got back to edit my photos, I saw (in) my two very first photos (that) the gunman was standing behind ambassador … like he was part of embassy staff or somebody from the art gallery — very calm.
Journalist Bronwen Dickey wrote on Twitter: “Before I die, may I know one-hundreth of @BurhanOzbilici’s courage.”
and after years of following/listening to ie: Zeynep et al
Daniel Nisman (@DannyNis) tweeted at 5:28 AM – 22 Dec 2016 :
#Turkey confirms number of dead in #ISIS attack near al-Bab rises to 16 troops, Turkey’s highest single loss thus far in #Syria. (http://twitter.com/DannyNis/status/811911239530151936?s=17)
Daniel Nisman (@DannyNis) tweeted at 5:38 AM – 22 Dec 2016 :
According to Turkish defense ministry, total of 35 troops have now been killed battling #Isis since operations in northern Syria commenced (http://twitter.com/DannyNis/status/811913895627681792?s=17)