3rd day gk12 with csu

what the fellows do…


research interests: what cues are needed for proper development

impact of stress on development

blood vessels in para ventricular nucleus of the hy   (PVN)

(nobody has looked at what caused this to happen – new field – no textbook)


how do i get more fundamental info? or how did you get to this thought process?


slovenia – help with some of research interest

mice over there that help research role of sex hormones in vascularization

roe of stress during development on vascularization

             (they die – at birth adrenal are critical)

guy in slovania is the only in the world that can do surgery on neo- natal mice

what do sex steroids do in brain function

any human born premature is texa methalon – significant clinical implications, more than 10% of people born in us get this and a growing number

need ovary slices for the chip

time lapsed videos – watch ovulation occur – (only ones doing it)

polysis (PCOS) syndrome – ovarian failure model – 10-15% of women in us – end up in metabolic syndrome – overweight




1. is gaba necessary for proper cell placement and gene expression in hypothalamus

2. if gaba signaling is blocked in early developent what happens to adult behaviors

3. where do cells that make up the PVN come from

4. can we label and see mitotic events in vivo?



major depressive disorder/anxiety disorder

in order for this to work – have to have all the right players doing all the right things

check to see if mice are stressed – forced swim test –

 anxiety disorder – plus maize – mouse that is more anxious is going to hang out in protective arms

video microscopy – how does drug x effect rate/direction/percent of cell movement

immuno histochemistry – when receptor is knocked out or drug is given how does the location of peptide/neuron x change

gene/production expression –

immuno histochemistry/western blot

reverse transcriptase,


so amy – one thing we’re researching  – how stress in a person decreases their rigor… so doing what you’re passionate about – or at least have flow in is the finding..

never thought of doing a forced swim test… sounds fun – but the stress is obvious


right now can’t test with microscopy because the technique actually kills the cells –

all the cells where matt wants to study are formed in 2 days

mit – lady just won mill for this… check her out amy


feedback loops – could programming do this?…   (diabetes)

example of how we do research

anything in hs curriculum for stem cells – adult neurogenesis

future of parkinson’s treatment…

location is important…  a friendly location – parkinsons, huntingtons – only one spot – much more fixable

but hippocampus – many locations

cells can be programmable to be x or y (stu said that would be cool if hs kid could get this)


front range has resources we need to get for lisa – look into that – from carol at rocky



the crime scene is a great way to evaluate if they understand the content





biomedical materials





half life…

new treatment on a tumor

this is organic chem that they don’t get till ap chem

silly putty lab

materials and properties and separation

what makes a molecule magnetic

magnetism – back to atomic structure


nuclear chem only taught by jeramy and ? in their district – easiest to relate to with mri/energy

uranium in nun..

air pollution

stem tends to be very broadly based – making connections

build a lab that changes the half life…


what ways can project tap into inorganic chem – mole calculations, stoicheometry different types of calculations, chip chem, percent yield, you made a 1 molar – but how would you make a milli molar – how do you calculate – what can you measure…, significant figures – wjen you start talking about weighing something…how much did your balance actually weigh – it’s all about the balancing scale, dimensional analysis (sig figs and measurement),


need to intro dimensional anal at a younger age


measurement to mearsurement errors and propagation of that error

gemini – landed 120 miles off site – in 60’s


measurement issue is huge


you can’t measure out a piece of paper and have it be perfect

finite and discrete data


can’t do all this apart – that’s why we do it together in a project


error bars… as a standard… we all suffer from measurement issues – acceptable perimeters of error: micro pippets and do an experiment where you calibrate a pippet – water into a dish and weigh it… that water weighs 1 gram here, not a volume, convert to a volume, then go through error regions

weigh m&m’s do same thing

how are they going to learn how to lecture?.. do we mean communicate?

need to make it scale out – so can we document a junto coming together of a class?

just like one-on-one is better for student.. it’s better for expert tutor… allen will get more insight in to sharing his thought process

in a group – some won’t ask what all the big words mean – one-to-one will make him/help him explain



allen and matt  – electrical engineering


chip functionality

  • electrode array to perform electrochemistry on tissue

  • potentiostat to perform amperometry and nvoltametry

  • amplifiers to capture weak signal spkes and amplify them

  • perform analog to digital conversation on the signals

  • perform arithmetic on the digital signals to generate a digital signature meaningful to the biologists


diff between a 16 and 32 bit.. binary numbers  –

analog – infinite amplitutes – digital – discreate valued


taking a number and saying you can represent it in 16 bits

higher the bit rate – less error – but slows down the measurement

more sig figs


why switch from analog to digital – we’re always doing it – because it’s easier to manipulate that info


cost of doing digital has decreased doing exponentially over time….  now i can put mill computing element on a tiny chip… for a couple cents

sound isn’t as good

analog read out – is a gage, digital read out – is a number

good circuit for doing math really fast – on digital

there’s a real shift to go back to analog  – more real world.

analog now – much more difficult to design

used to be easier – follow steps

now – go to iphone – power is in 1.5 volt – so design so much more difficult – but digital is getting easier

now have to retrain a lot of engineers

emphasis back to analog because it’s more challenging

analog….digital… until very end … analog

technically everything is analog

chip architecture – look at their picture

when the signal is so small hard to analyze – so amplify it first

signal comes in as noisy..

99.9% of cases output is a voltage


chip specifications

  • noise – circuits inherantly have their own noises – so keep to a min (primary concern)

  • power – low power to extend life

  • performance – circuits don’t need to be super fast (or do they – do they go fast and we don’t know it)  – energy harvesting – can even use chemicals in body for power – lot of glucose

  • accuracy, reliability, robustness – will they degrade with use


started w/a memory block (store biosignature and used during computation)


chip progress: low-voltage memory array


published a paper on this – on the memory – it similated and worked (the digital side)


chip progress: opamps  (this is the analog side)

  • low voltage, low noise  (major piece for many other circuits) – very useful building  block

  • designing opamps at the low supply volt of 750mV (iphone is 1.5) – cutting in half – takes power down to 1/4


chip progress: chip layout

pushing polygons – laborious

when you finish – intel – trillions of polygons



32 bit adder –

carry look ahead topology

optimized it to find the best supply voltage


functional verification – a lot of programming

1000 random inputs – see if they matched


device layout

  • had to transition from schematic to physical implementation

  • drew out transistor geometries as they would appear wehn fabricated

  • optimized for smallest amount of polysilicon and metal connections, as their parasitic resistance and capacitance degrade circuit performance

  • examples of difference between simulation results and real world results   (had to check 5000 transisters)

  • change adder to a multiplier (bulk of digital signal processing)

say have 20 diff sized bricks… build a wall in a specific form…

complexity is how does each new brick lay….   infinitely easier for you to add a number in your head than your calc…


clock cycle: asyncrhonis – design circuits so all operations/signals happen at same time – so discrete as well.. sync to every rising each.. if you don’t have a clock for everything to reference to – needs to have sequential order…

o111   7

11o1   13







showed how to mult binary numbers


last year paired with physics   : size and scale, e fields, velocity/acceleration, chemistry (bonding)

simple operation of a transisitor, holes and doping of a transistor

silicon wafers –


  • power and energy – low power electronics, wireless power

  • batter technologies – looking at specs alkaline to rechargeable

  • compare batteries in ipods/smartphones

  • modern chip design – why power concerns are #1 priority

  • estimated daily power consumption of rocky mountain high

  • wireless power – different ways to power small scale electronics

  • energy harvesting

just recently – solar panels around the moon and have it be power back to earth


wireless has been around forever – no one has figured out how to bring it down and harvest it

sensor network for trees – grab data for the sensors – so using ph differences in tree branch

  • lego mindstorm robotics

  • graphical programming interface

  • gearing up wheels to speed up

  • showed what it was like to write a research paper – software – latex

  •           very interactive –

  • electronic design tools

  • lesson on programming – showed them alice

  • electrical safety – kids loved that  (circuit breakers, what goes on behind a wall outlet)


chip design

matt’s grad class –

93% of teachers in science class today are biologically trained

physics is taken at the end of a math/science sequence – so it’s a filter – so only 1-2 classes

teacher with least experience will get the physics


most foreign people are exposed to programming  latex  engineering


intel – chip design course in ft collins

computer engineering –

8 is a 3 digit number


log out how it will relate in real life  – need to assimilate





  • data analysis

  • optimization algorithms for circuit design

  • many parameters in design

  • sizes of components affect the performance

  • optimize these parameters (sizing) based

next year

  • brain computer interfaces

  • determine user’s intent based on brain signals

  • original motivation was assistive technologies

  • targeted as ALS and spinal cord injury patients   locked in – completely paralyzed

unmaned air vehicle – put into helmets – gijoe


recording methods

  • electroencephalography (eeg) (electrodes placed on scalp)

  • electrocorticorgraphy (edog)  (eclectrodes placed on cortex of brain)

  • implant


eeg – non-invasive method; noisier signal through scalp; loses high frequencies compared to ecog  — in general a lower quality signal

dry electrodes – normally use a conductive gel, messy, can take 20 min to set up , even noisier than when dry


data analysis – always a lot more hidden inside – just how you look at it – so switch the technique – ie: turn it into the frequency spectrum – shows that it is there in the data even though when you look at it visually it’s not there


anything in the room runs at 60 hurz


into bio sensor

signal analysis (pull meaningful signals out of data)

more computer science than math…







create a math model of cell migration based on chemical signals

cycle between math and other sciences, from experiment develop a model, for prediction, understanding, physical intuition

experiment — model — experiment — model — experiment — model


progress in past year:

  • 2-d many body simulation framework —leonard jones circles

  • 3d cell

  • interactions with cells    naturally spherical – not connected

  • chemical diffusion for signals

  • cytoskeleton and chemotaxis model

  • adaptive mesh methods – because above was taking too long

  • organelles

basically 2d water bags… using the adaptive grid


next steps:

  • cell adhesion model

  • cell production at ventricle

  • radial glial cell scaffolding model

  • extracellular matrix model


what to do in slavinia – they have done research on shapes and adhesions between them





study an object

stimulate it

measure it

analyze it





at the end of the day – we want kids to want to connect the 4 disciplines




glide slope for friday


1) lab visits   thurs 9-11

2) make schools available to fellows

8 computer design

how engineers tackle a project

report on research progress to you

intro to programming

? robotics

electrical safety



info packet of school – class site

share phone numbers

we meet wed’s at 7pm

we’ll come visit





chen research group

once a month the kids report to allen

1. computer programming (robotics, figure out how guitar amps work, speaker lab)

2. focus on electrical engineering