adding page this day:


via Stephen Downes

Downes (@Downes) tweeted at 8:47 AM on Sun, Jul 15, 2018:
Connectivism is not constructivism and not derived from constructivism at all. I’ve argued that constructivism is based on cognitivist foundations while connectivism is noncognitivist. Constructivism is based on creating representations while connectivism is non-representational.


See for a longer discussion.

According to connectivism, learning is the formation of connections in a network

  • in behaviourism, learning is the creation of a habitual response in particular circumstances (or as Gilbert Ryle would say, to learn is to acquire a disposition).
  • in instructivism, learning is the successful transfer of knowledge from one person (typically a teacher) to another person (typically a student).
  • in constructivism, learning is the creation and application of mental models or representations of the world.

(in connectivism) networks ‘learn’ by automatically adjusting the set of connections between individual neurons or nodes.

This is a very different model of learning from that proposed by other learning theories.

  • In behaviourism, learning takes place through operant conditioning, where the learner is presented with rewards and consequences.
  • In instructivism, the transfer of knowledge takes place through memorization and rote. This is essentially a process of presentation and testing.
  • In constructivism, there is no single theory describing how the construction of models and representations happens – the theory is essentially the proposition that, given the right circumstances, construction will occur.


They see a person learning as a self-managed and autonomous seeker of opportunities to create, interact and have new experiences, where learning is not the accumulation of more and more facts or memories, but the ongoing development of a richer and richer neural tapestry.

See this post, section (g) and these slides:


there’s so much more.. but this bit is huge..

rep ness.. et al